Opis: Youmans Neurological Surgery - H. Richard Winn, J Youmans
Effectively perform today's most effective, state-of-the-art neurosurgical procedures with "Youmans Neurological Surgery, 6th Edition", edited by H. Richard Winn, MD. Still the cornerstone of unquestioned guidance on surgery of the nervous system, the new edition updates you on the most exciting developments in this ever-changing field. In print and online, it provides all the cutting-edge details you need to know about functional and restorative neurosurgery/deep brain stimulation, stem cell biology, radiological and nuclear imaging, neuro-oncology, and much more. And with nearly 100 intraoperative videos online at our associated website, as well as thousands of full-color illustrations, this comprehensive, multimedia, 4-volume set remains the clinical neurosurgery reference you need to manage and avoid complications, overcome challenges, and maximize patient outcomes.
"There is no doubt that Neurological Surgery is the grand dame of the major neurosurgical textbooks.and is recommended without hesitation."- JAMA, (review of 4th edition)VOLUME 1 SECTION I Introduction to Neurological Surgery PART 1 History Chapter 1 Historical Overview of Neurosurgery James Tait Goodrich and Eugene S. Flamm PART 2 Basic Science Chapter 2 Surgical Anatomy of the Brain Hung Tzu Wen, Albert L. Rhoton Jr, and Antonio C. M. Mussi Chapter 3 Molecular Biology Primer for Neurosurgeons Kevin Y. Miyashiro and James Eberwine Chapter 4 Neuroembryology Harvey B. Sarnat, Laura Flores-Sarnat, and Joseph D. Pinter Chapter 5 Stem Cell Biology in the Central Nervous System Philip J. Horner and Samuel E. Nutt Chapter 6 Neurons and Neuroglia Bruce D. Trapp and Karl Herrup Chapter 7 Cellular Mechanisms of Brain Energy Metabolism Albert Gjedde and Pierre Magistretti Chapter 8 Blood-Brain Barrier Shahid M. Nimjee, Gerald A. Grant, H. Richard Winn, and Damir Janigro Chapter 9 Cerebral Edema Robert J. Weil and Edward H. Oldfield Chapter 10 Physiology of the Cerebrospinal Fluid and Intracranial Pressure ?Anthony Marmarou and Andrew Beaumont Chapter 11 Neurosurgical Epidemiology and Outcomes Assessment Hugh Garton, Frederick G. Barker II, and Stephen J. Haines parT 3 Approach To The Patient Chapter 12 Altered Consciousness Nicholas D. Schiff Chapter 13 Neuroophthalmology Timothy J. Martin and James J. Corbett Chapter 14 Neurotology P. Ashley Wackym and Christina L. Runge-Samuelson Chapter 15 Neurourology Brett D. Lebed and Eric S. Rovner Chapter 16 Neuropsychological Testing Jordan Grafman parT 4 Radiologic Fundamentals Chapter 17 Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain Thomas Aquinas Kim, Aleksandrs Uldis Kalnins, and Robert W. Prost Chapter 18 Radiology of the Spine Ajit Krishnaney and Michael T. Modic Chapter 19 Physiologic Evaluation of the Brain with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Amish H. Doshi, Pascal Bou-Haidar, and Bradley Delman Chapter 20 Molecular Imaging of the Brain with Positron Emission Tomography William P. Melega and Antonio A. F. De Salles SECTION II General Neurosurgery parT 1 Perioperative Care Chapter 21 Neuroanesthesia: Preoperative Evaluation Deepak Sharma and Arthur M. Lam Chapter 22 Avoidance of Complications in Neurosurgery Nirit Weiss and Kalmon D. Post Chapter 23 Intracranial Pressure Monitoring Vincent Y. Wang and Geoffrey T. Manley Chapter 24 Principles of Neurocritical Care Eelco F. M. Wijdicks and Alexander Y. Zubkov parT 2 General Principles and Surgical Techniques Chapter 25 Surgical Planning: Overview Martin Weiss, Gabriel Zada, and Alexander A. Khalessi Chapter 26 Positioning for Cranial Surgery R. Webster Crowley, Aaron S. Dumont, M. Sean McKisic, and John A. Jane Sr Chapter 27 Patient Positioning for Spinal Surgery Peter D. Angevine, Paul R. Gigante, and Paul C. McCormick Chapter 28 Positioning in Peripheral Nerve Surgery Allen H. Maniker Chapter 29 Incisions and Closures Stirling Craig and John A. Persing Chapter 30 Advantages and Limitations of Cranial Endoscopy Jeroen R. Coppens and William T. Couldwell Chapter 31 Thorascopic Spine Surgery Rudolf Beisse Chapter 32 Cranioplasty Robert G. Whitmore, Shabbar F. Danish, and M. Sean Grady parT 3 Geriatric Neurosurgery Evaluation of Adult Hydrocephalus Chapter 33 Production and Flow of Cerebrospinal Fluid Conrad E. Johanson Chapter 34 Clinical Evaluation of Adult Hydrocephalus Nicole C. Keong, Marek Czosnyka, Zofia Czosnyka, and John D. Pickard Management of Adult Hydrocephalus Chapter 35 Shunting Marvin Bergsneider and Eric Stiner Chapter 36 Adult Hydrocephalus: The Role of Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy Jay Riva-Cambrin and James Drake Subdural Hematomas Chapter 37 Pathophysiology of Subdural Hematomas Brent O'Neill, Jack Wilberger, and Adam Wilberger Chapter 38 Medical and Surgical Management of Chronic Subdural Hematomas Joachim K. Krauss, Lawrence F. Marshall, and Ralf Weigel parT 4 Infection Chapter 39 Basic Science of Central Nervous System Infections Jeffrey M. Tessier and W. Michael Scheld Chapter 40 Postoperative Infections of the Head and Brain Christopher J. Farrell, Mary L. Pisculli, and Frederick G. Barker II Chapter 41 Postoperative Infections of the Spine Michael A. Finn and Meic H. Schmidt Chapter 42 The Use and Misuse of Antibiotics in Neurosurgery Koijan Kainth, Matthew A. Hunt, and Stephen J. Haines Chapter 43 Brain Abscess Allan R. Tunkel and W. Michael Scheld Chapter 44 Meningitis and Encephalitis Ian E. McCutcheon Chapter 45 Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome M. Kelly Nicholas, Rimas V. Lukas, and Koen van Besien Chapter 46 Parasitic Infections Oscar H. Del Brutto, Juan J. Figueroa, and Hector H. Garcia Chapter 47 Surgical Risk of Transmittable Diseases Donald E. Fry SECTION III Epilepsy parT 1 Basic Science of Epilepsy Chapter 48 Epilepsy Surgery Overview Guy M. McKhann II and Matthew A. Howard III Chapter 49 Electrophysiologic Properties of the Mammalian Central Nervous System Guy M. McKhann II and Damir Janigro Chapter 50 Animal Models of Epilepsy Maria Elisa Calcagnotto and Scott C.Baraban Chapter 51 Malformations of Cortical Development Gregory G. Heuer and Peter B. Crino parT 2 Approach to the Patient Chapter 52 Diagnosis and Classification of Seizures and Epilepsy Frank Gilliam Chapter 53 Antiepileptic Medications: Principles of Clinical Use Blaise F. D. Bourgeois parT 3 Preoperative Evaluation For Epilepsy Chapter 54 Continuous Electroencephalography in Neurological-Neurosurgical Intensive Care: Applications and Value Hiba Arif, Jan Claassen, and Lawrence J. Hirsch Chapter 55 Neuroradiologic Evaluation for Epilepsy Surgery Suzan Dyve, Leif Sorensen, Adam N. Mamelak, William W. Sutherling, and Gregory D. Cascino Chapter 56 Evaluation of Patients for Epilepsy Surgery Costas Michaelides, Garth Rees Cosgrove, and Andrew J. Cole parT 4 Intraoperative Mapping and Monitoring for Cortical Resections Chapter 57 Motor, Sensory, and Language Mapping and Monitoring for Cortical Resections Ben Waldau and Michael M. Haglund Chapter 58 Auditory Language Mapping Zachary Wright and Guy M. McKhann II Chapter 59 Investigation of Human Cognition in Epilepsy Surgery Patients Hiroto Kawasaki and Chandan G. Reddy parT 5 Specific Operative Approaches Chapter 60 Intracranial Monitoring Kenneth P. Vives, Andy J. Redmond, and Dennis D. Spencer Chapter 61 Surgery for Extratemporal Lobe Epilepsy James W. Leiphart and Itzhak Fried Chapter 62 Standard Temporal Lobectomy William Bingaman and Imad Najm Chapter 63 Selective Amygdalohippocampectomy Kim J. Burchiel, Andrew C. Zacest, and David Spencer Chapter 64 Tailored Resections for Epilepsy David W. Roberts Chapter 65 Topectomy and Multiple Subpial Transection Patrick J. Connolly, Atsushi Umemura, Gordon H. Baltuch, and Richard W. Byrne Chapter 66 Hemispheric Disconnection Procedures Johannes Schramm Chapter 67 Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Intractable Epilepsy James E. Baumgartner and Gretchen K. Von Allmen Chapter 68 Radiosurgical Treatment of Epilepsy Isaac Yang, Edward F. Chang, Nicholas M. Barbaro, Jean Regis, Marc Leveque, Fabrice Bartolomei, and Patrick Chauvel Chapter 69 Deep Brain Stimulation for Epilepsy Robert S. Fisher, Brian Litt, and William C. Stacey Chapter 70 Epilepsy Surgery: Outcome and Complications Anthony L. Petraglia, Christian B. Kaufman, and Webster H. Pilcher SECTION IV Functional Neurosurgery parT 1 Overview Chapter 71 Introduction Andres M. Lozano and Ron L. Alterman parT 2 Basic Science of Movement Disorders Chapter 72 Anatomy and Synaptic Connectivity of the Basal Ganglia Yoland Smith Chapter 73 Rationale for Surgical Interventions in Movement Disorders Thomas Wichmann and Mahlon R. DeLong Chapter 74 Neuropathology of Movement Disorders Kurt A. Jellinger parT 3 Neurology of Movement Disorders Chapter 75 Clinical Overview of Movement Disorders Ihtsham ul Haq, Kelly D. Foote, and Michael S. Okun Chapter 76 Patient Selection Criteria for Deep Brain Stimulation in Movement Disorders Ioannis U. Isaias and Michele Tagliati Chapter 77 Functional Imaging in Movement Disorders David J. Brooks and Nicola Pavese parT 4 Surgery for Movement Disorders Chapter 78 Surgical Management of Tremor Kazutaka Kobayashi, Jong Hyun Kim, William S. Anderson, and Frederick A. Lenz Chapter 79 Pallidal Interventions for Parkinson's Disease Philip A. Starr Chapter 80 Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Alim Louis Benabid, John Mitrofanis, Stephan Chabardes, Eric Seigneuret, Napoleon Torres, Brigitte Piallat, Abdelhamid Benazzouz, Valerie Fraix, Paul Krack, Pierre Pollak, Sylvie Grand, and Jean Francois LeBas Chapter 81 Subthalamotomy in Parkinson's Disease: Indications and Outcome Jorge Guridi, Lazaro Alvarez, Raul Macias, and Jose A. Obeso Chapter 82 Deep Brain Stimulation for Dystonia Ron L. Alterman Chapter 83 Deep Brain Stimulation: Mechanisms of Action Matthew D. Johnson, Cameron C. McIntyre, and Jerrold L. Vitek Chapter 84 Emerging and Experimental Neurosurgical Treatments for Parkinson's Disease Scellig Stone, Karim Mukhida, and Andres M. Lozano Chapter 85 Selective Peripheral Denervation for Cervical Dystonia Joachim K. Krauss parT 5 Surgery for Psychiatric Disorders Chapter 86 A History of Psychosurgery Patrick M. Schweder and Garth Rees Cosgrove Chapter 87 Surgery for Tourette's Syndrome Robert J. Maciunas and Brian N. Maddux Chapter 88 Surgery for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Ali R. Rezai, Andre Machado, Donald A. Malone Jr, and Benjamin Greenberg Chapter 89 Surgical Treatment of Major Depression Clement Hamani, Brian Snyder, Adrian W. Laxton, Paul E. Holtzheimer, Helen S. Mayberg, and Andres M. Lozano parT 6 Surgical Interventions for Spasticity Chapter 90 Ablative Surgery for Spasticity Marc Sindou and Patrick Mertens Chapter 91 Management of Spasticity by Central Nervous System Infusion Techniques Richard D. Penn and Daniel M. Corcos parT 7 Miscellaneous Chapter 92 Treatment of Intractable Vertigo Zackary E. Boomsaad, Steven A. Telian, and Parag G. Patil Chapter 93 Treatment Applications of Cortical Stimulation Jay L. Shils and Jeffrey E. Arle Chapter 94 Neuroprosthetics Jacob A. Donoghue, Jacob H. Bagley, Gerhard M. Friehs, and Vasilios A. Zerris VOLUME 2 SECTION V Oncology parT 1 Overview Chapter 95 Brain Tumors: General Considerations Henry Brem, E. Antonio Chiocca, and Raymond Sawaya parT 2 Basic Science of Neurooncology Chapter 96 Brain Tumors: An Overview of Current Histopathologic Classifications Gregory N. Fuller and Teresa Ribalta Chapter 97 Brain Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy Roberta P. Glick, Terry Lichtor, and Amy B. Heimberger Chapter 98 Brain Tumor Stem Cells Hasan A. Zaidi, Francesco Di Meco, and Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa Chapter 99 Proliferation Markers in the Evaluation of Gliomas Tarik Tihan Chapter 100 Molecular Genetics and the Development of Targets for Glioma Therapy Nduka M. Amankulor and Eric C. Holland Chapter 101 Growth Factors in Glial Tumors Abhijit Guha and David Omahen Chapter 102 The Genetic Origins of Brain Tumors Gregory J. Riggins Chapter 103 Invasion in Malignant Glioma Ian Lee and Mark L. Rosenblum Chapter 104 Angiogenesis and Brain Tumors: Molecular Targets and Molecular Scalpels Steven Brem and Eric T. Wong Chapter 105 Barriers to Delivery of Therapeutics to Brain Tumors Dani S. Bidros, Michael A. Vogelbaum, and James K. C. Liu Chapter 106 Epidemiology of Brain Tumors James L. Fisher, Margaret Wrensch, Joseph L. Wiemels, and Judith A. Schwartzbaum Chapter 107 Gene- and Viral-Based Therapies for Gliomas Kaveh Asadi-Moghaddam and E. Antonio Chiocca parT 3 Approach to the Patient Chapter 108 Clinical Features: Neurology of Brain Tumor and Paraneoplastic Disorders William R. Shapiro Chapter 109 Radiologic Features of Central Nervous System Tumors Michael A. Kraut, Nafi Aygun, and David M. Yousem Chapter 110 Endovascular Techniques for Tumor Embolization Robert Hirschl and Louis P. Caragine Jr Chapter 111 Brain Tumors during Pregnancy Alessandro Olivi, Mohamad Bydon, and Shaan M. Raza Chapter 112 Principles of Chemotherapy Karine Michaud and Susan M. Chang Chapter 113 Brain Tumor Outcome Studies: Design and Interpretation Frederick G. Barker II Chapter 114 Frame and Frameless Stereotactic Brain Biopsy Alessandro Olivi, Jon D. Weingart, Jason Liauw, and Shaan M. Raza parT 4 Surgical Considerations Chapter 115 Basic Principles of Cranial Surgery for Brain Tumors Jon D. Weingart and Henry Brem Chapter 116 Basic Principles of Skull Base Surgery Madjid Samii, Marcos Tatagiba, and Venelin Gerganov Chapter 117 Surgical Complications of Brain Tumors and Their Avoidance Ronald E. Warnick Chapter 118 Navigation for Brain Tumors Gene H. Barnett Chapter 119 Endoscopic Approaches to Brain Tumors Peter Nakaji and Charles Teo Chapter 120 Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Won Kim and Linda M. Liau parT 5 Intrinsic Tumors Chapter 121 Low-Grade Gliomas: Astrocytoma, Oligodendroglioma, and Mixed Glioma Nader Sanai and Mitchel S. Berger Chapter 122 Malignant Gliomas: Anaplastic Astrocytoma, Glioblastoma Multiforme, Gliosarcoma Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, Thomas Kosztowski, and Henry Brem Chapter 123 Unusual Gliomas Michael L. DiLuna, Joachim M. Baehring, Anita Huttner, and Joseph M. Piepmeier Chapter 124 Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors Karin Muraszko, Shawn L. Hervey-Jumper Chapter 125 Pineal Tumors Jeffrey N. Bruce Chapter 126 Medulloblastoma Joshua J. Chern, Ganesh Rao, and Frederick F. Lang Chapter 127 Intracranial Ependymomas in Adults James L. Frazier and George I. Jallo Chapter 128 Hemangioblastomas Russell R. Lonser and Edward H. Oldfield Chapter 129 Central Nervous System Lymphoma Elizabeth R. Gerstner and Tracy T. Batchelor Chapter 130 Metastatic Brain Tumors Frederick F. Lang, Eric L. Chang, Dima Suki, David M. Wildrick, and Raymond Sawaya parT 6 Extrinsic Tumors Chapter 131 Meningiomas Ossama Al-Mefty, Saleem I. Abdulrauf, and Georges F. Haddad Chapter 132 Meningeal Sarcoma and Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma Alim M. Ladha, Barton L. Guthrie, and Matthew G. Ewend Chapter 133 Acoustic Neuroma Scott A. Meyer and Kalmon D. Post Chapter 134 Pituitary Tumors: Functioning and Nonfunctioning John A. Jane Jr, Kamal Thapar, and Edward R. Laws Jr Chapter 135 Craniopharyngioma James A. J. King, Vivek Mehta, and Peter M. Black Chapter 136 Epidermoid, Dermoid, and Neurenteric Cysts Wael Hassaneen and Raymond Sawaya Chapter 137 Neoplastic Meningitis Alyx B. Porter and Kurt A. Jaeckle parT 7 Ventricular Tumors Chapter 138 Ventricular Tumors Helmut Bertalanffy, Niklaus Krayenbuhl, Christian Wess, and Oliver Bozinov parT 8 Skull and Skull Base Tumors Chapter 139 Overview of Skull Base Tumors Mario Ammirati and Hekmat Zarzour Chapter 140 Chordomas and Chondrosarcomas Justin S. Cetas, Samuel A. Hughes, and Johnny B. Delashaw Jr Chapter 141 Glomus Tumors Massimo Gerosa and Paolo Rizzo Chapter 142 Neoplasms of the Paranasal Sinuses Daryl R. Fourney, Lissa Ogieglo, and Franco DeMonte Chapter 143 Esthesioneuroblastoma Jonas M. Sheehan and John A. Jane Sr Chapter 144 Trigeminal Schwannomas M. Necmettin Pamir and Koray Ozduman Chapter 145 Juvenile Nasal Angiofibroma Paul Klimo Jr, Daniel R. Boue, and Corey Raffel Chapter 146 Osseous Tumors Ganesh Rao Chapter 147 Tumors of the Orbit Paul A. Gardner, Joseph C. Maroon, and Amin B. Kassam Chapter 148 Skull Tumors Eric G. St. Clair and Ian E. McCutcheon Chapter 149 Scalp Tumors Ciara D. Harraher, John A. Persing, and Elizabeth B. Claus parT 9 Nonneoplastic Disorders Mimicking Brain Tumors Chapter 150 Pseudotumor Cerebri Neil R. Miller Chapter 151 Sarcoidosis, Tuberculosis, and Xanthogranuloma Sherwin E. Hua, Richard E. Clatterbuck, Barney J. Stern, Prakash Sampath, and Laurence D. Rhines Chapter 152 Demyelinating Disease Peter C. Burger and Thierry A. G. M. Huisman SECTION VI Pain parT 1 Overview Chapter 153 Pain: General Historical Considerations Andrew C. Zacest and Kim J. Burchiel parT 2 Basic Science Chapter 154 Anatomy and Physiology of Pain Mary M. Heinricher and Daniel R. Cleary Chapter 155 Molecular Basis of Nociception Thomas K. Baumann parT 3 Nonsurgical Therapy Chapter 156 Approach to the Patient with Chronic Pain Joshua M. Rosenow Chapter 157 Pharmacologic Treatment of Pain Erika A. Petersen and Louis A. Whitworth Chapter 158 Management of Pain by Anesthetic Techniques Rajni K. Jutla, Grace Chen, Matthew McGehee, and Brett R. Stacey parT 4 Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia Chapter 159 Evidence-Based Approach to the Treatment of Facial Pain Turo Nurmikko Chapter 160 Trigeminal Neuralgia: Diagnosis and Nonoperative Management Marlon S. Mathews, Devin K. Binder, and Mark E. Linskey Chapter 161 Percutaneous Procedures for Trigeminal Neuralgia Dibyendu K. Ray, Diaa Bahgat, and Kim J. Burchiel Chapter 162 Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia Jason P. Sheehan, Jay Jagannathan, and Stephen J. Monteith Chapter 163 Microvascular Decompression for Trigeminal Neuralgia Jonathan Miller and Kim J. Burchiel parT 5 Surgical Procedures for Nontrigeminal Pain Chapter 164 Neurosurgical Management of Intractable Pain Kenneth A. Follett and Richard B. North Neuromodulation Chapter 165 Evidence Base: Neurostimulation for Pain Robert J. Coffey, Clement Hamani, and Andres M. Lozano Chapter 166 Peripheral Nerve Stimulation for Neuropathic Pain Konstantin V. Slavin, Paula Eboli, and Sabri Aydin Chapter 167 Spinal Cord Stimulation Oren Sagher and Emily Lehmann Chapter 168 Motor Cortex Stimulation Jaimie M. Henderson, Shivanand P. Lad, and Kevin Chao Destructive Procedures Chapter 169 Evidence Base for Destructive Procedures Justin S. Cetas, Ahmed Raslan, and Kim J. Burchiel Chapter 170 Diagnosis and Management of Painful Neuromas Deepa Danan and Christopher J. Winfree Chapter 171 Dorsal Root Entry Zone Lesions Diaa Bahgat, Dibyendu K. Ray, and Kim J. Burchiel Chapter 172 Percutaneous Cordotomy and Trigeminal Tractotomy-Nucleotomy Yucel Kanpolat SECTION VII Pediatrics parT 1 Overview and Approach Chapter 173 Neuroanesthesia in Children Sulpicio G. Soriano and Mark A. Rockoff Chapter 174 Neurocritical Care in Children Jose Pineda and Mark Wainwright parT 2 Cranial Development Abnormalities Chapter 175 Normal and Abnormal Embryology of the Brain Mark S. Dias and Michael D. Partington Chapter 176 Encephalocele Saadi Ghatan Chapter 177 Dandy-Walker Syndrome Ondrej Choutka and Francesco T. Mangano Chapter 178 Arachnoid Cysts Nicholas M. Wetjen and Marion L. Walker Chapter 179 Chiari Malformations R. Shane Tubb, Jeffrey A. Pugh, and W. Jerry Oakes Chapter 180 Craniopagus Twins Samuel R. Browd, James Tait Goodrich, and Marion L. Walker parT 3 Craniosynostosis Chapter 181 Genetics of Craniosynostosis Dan Drzymalski and Mark R. Proctor Chapter 182 Craniosynostosis John A. Persing, John A. Jane Sr, and Joseph H. Piatt Chapter 183 Syndromic Craniosynostosis Matthew D. Smyth, Daniel Marchac, and Dominique Renier Chapter 184 Endoscopic Treatment of Craniosynostosis David F. Jimenez and Constance M. Barone Chapter 185 Plagiocephaly S. David Moss parT 4 Hydrocephalus Chapter 186 Hydrocephalus in Children: Approach to the Patient John R. W. Kestle Chapter 187 Infantile Posthemorrhagic Hydrocephalus Yin C. Hu, Shakeel A. Chowdhry, and Shenandoah Robinson Chapter 188 Cerebrospinal Fluid Physiology J. Gordon McComb and Shinya Yamada Chapter 189 Experimental Hydrocephalus James P. McAllister II Chapter 190 Ventricular Shunting Procedures Jeffrey P. Blount Chapter 191 Neuroendoscopy Yin C. Hu and Alan R. Cohen Chapter 192 Cerebrospinal Fluid Devices Richard J. Edwards and James Drake Chapter 193 Shunt Infections and Their Treatment Nalin Gupta parT 5 Pediatric Cranial and Intracranial Tumors Chapter 194 General Approaches and Considerations for Pediatric Brain Tumors Renee Reynolds and Gerald A. Grant Chapter 195 Optic Pathway Hypothalamic Gliomas Tadanori Tomita and Avinash Mohan Chapter 196 Thalamic Tumors N u Owase Jeelani and Peter Dirks Chapter 197 Choroid Plexus Tumors Bruce A. Kaufman Chapter 198 Pediatric Craniopharyngioma David Yam, Frederick A. Boop, and Robert A. Sanford Chapter 199 Supratentorial Hemispheric Tumors Neal Luther and Mark M. Souweidane Chapter 200 Ependymoma Christopher D. Duntsch, Michael D. Taylor, and Frederick A. Boop Chapter 201 Medulloblastoma in Children Paul N. Kongkham, Cynthia Hawkins, and James T. Rutka Chapter 202 Cerebellar Astrocytomas Leslie N. Sutton Chapter 203 Brainstem Glioma Clemens M. Schirmer and Liliana C. Goumnerova Chapter 204 Intracranial Germ Cell Tumors Ian F. Pollack and Regina I. Jakacki Chapter 205 Familial Tumors (Neurocutaneous Syndromes) Ian G. Dorward and Jeffrey R. Leonard Chapter 206 Skull Tumors and Fibrous Dysplasia Andrew D. Parent and James M. Shiflett parT 6 Vascular Disease Chapter 207 Moyamoya Disease Edward R. Smith and R. Michael Scott Chapter 208 Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformation Alejandro Berenstein and Yasunari Niimi parT 7 Head and Brain Trauma Chapter 209 Management of Severe Head Injury in Children Sarah Jernigan and Mark R. Proctor Chapter 210 Child Abuse Ann-Christine Duhaime and Cindy W. Christian Chapter 211 Growing Skull Fracture Robert Owen and Thomas Pittman Chapter 212 Birth Head Trauma Avinash Mohan and Robin M. Bowman Chapter 213 Birth Brachial Plexus Injury T. S. Park and Alexander K. Powers parT 8 Spine Disorders in Children Chapter 214 Myelomeningocele and Myelocystocele Todd C. Hankinson, Richard C. E. Anderson, and Neil A. Feldstein Chapter 215 Lipomyelomeningocele Sharad Rajpal and Bermans J. Iskandar Chapter 216 Split Spinal Cord Zachary N. Litvack and Nathan R. Selden Chapter 217 Tethered Spinal Cord: Fatty Filum Terminale, Meningocele Manque, and Dermal Sinus Tracts R. Shane Tubbs, Jeffrey Pugh, and John C. Wellons III Chapter 218 Developmental Abnormalities of the Craniocervical Junction Arnold H. Menezes and Timothy W. Vogel Chapter 219 Achondroplasia and Other Dwarfisms Benjamin S. Carson Sr, Daniele Rigamonti, and Edward S. Ahn Chapter 220 Cervical Spine Disorders in Children Nicholas M. Wetjen and Douglas L. Brockmeyer Chapter 221 Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumors in Children Rick Abbott Chapter 222 Spine Tumors in Children Tord D. Alden Chapter 223 Thoracolumbar Spinal Disorders in Pediatric Patients Justin S. Smith and Christopher I. Shaffrey Chapter 224 Vertebral Column and Spinal Cord Injuries in Children Dachling Pang and John G. Zovickian parT 9 Cerebral Palsy, Spasticity, and Dystonia Chapter 225 Clinical Features and Management of Cerebral Palsy Janice E. Brunstrom-Hernandez and Ann Tilton Chapter 226 Intrathecal Baclofen Therapy for Cerebral Palsy Leland Albright Chapter 227 Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy for Spastic Cerebral Palsy T. S. Park and David D. Limbrick Jr Chapter 228 Dystonia in Children Leland Albright VOLUME 3 SECTION VIII Peripheral Nerve parT 1 Overview Chapter 229 General Principles in Evaluating and Treating Peripheral Nerve Pathology, Injuries, and Entrapments and Their Historical Context Aaron G. Filler and David G. Kline parT 2 Basic Science of Peripheral Nerve Disorders Chapter 230 Pathophysiology of Surgical Nerve Disorders Wale A. R. Sulaiman, Rajiv Midha, and Tessa Gordon parT 3 Approach to the Patient with Peripheral Nerve Disorders Chapter 231 Peripheral Nerve Examination, Evaluation, and Biopsy Stephen M. Russell and Rajiv Midha Chapter 232 Electrodiagnostic Evaluation of Peripheral Nerves: Electromyography and Nerve Conduction Studies Lawrence Robinson and Eric C. Yuen Chapter 233 Peripheral Neuropathies William Campbell and Aaron G. Filler Chapter 234 Operative Neurophysiology of Peripheral Nerves Leo T. Happel Chapter 235 Imaging for Peripheral Nerve Disorders Aaron G. Filler parT 4 Management of Peripheral Nerve Entrapment Chapter 236 Distal Entrapment Syndromes: Carpal Tunnel, Cubital Tunnel, Peroneal, and Tarsal Tunnel Charles P. Toussaint and Eric L. Zager Chapter 237 Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Charles P. Toussaint and Eric L. Zager Chapter 238 Piriformis Syndrome, Obturator Internus Syndrome, Pudendal Nerve Entrapment, and Other Pelvic Entrapments Aaron G. Filler and Holly Gilmer-Hill parT 5 Management and Repair of Peripheral Nerve Injuries Chapter 239 Techniques and Options in Nerve Reconstruction and Repair Rajiv Midha Chapter 240 Management of Acute Peripheral Nerve Injuries Thomas Kretschmer and Rolfe Birch Chapter 241 Early Management of Brachial Plexus Injuries Allan Belzberg and Martijn J. A. Malessy Chapter 242 Secondary Procedures for Brachial Plexus Injuries Huan Wang, Alexander Y. Shin, Allen T. Bishop, and Robert J. Spinner Chapter 243 Nerve Injuries of the Lower Extremity ?Robert Tiel and Aaron G. Filler parT 6 Management of Peripheral Nerve Tumors Chapter 244 Benign Tumors of the Peripheral Nerve Daniel H. Kim, Allan H. Friedman, Ryan S. Kitagawa, and David Kline Chapter 245 Surgery for Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors Allen Maniker, Gaurav Gupta, and Abhijit Guha parT 7 Management of Pain and Complications in Peripheral Nerve Surgery Chapter 246 Pain, Complications, and Iatrogenic Injury in Nerve Surgery Allen Maniker and Stephen M. Russell SECTION IX Radiation parT 1 Overview Chapter 247 General and Historical Considerations of Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery Mark E. Linskey and Jeffrey V. Kuo parT 2 Basic Science of Radiotechniques Chapter 248 Principles of Radiation Therapy Carryn Anderson, John Bayouth, and John M. Buatti Chapter 249 The Radiobiology and Physics of Radiosurgery Jason P. Sheehan, David Schlesinger, and Chun-Po Yen parT 3 Fractionated Radiation Therapy Chapter 250 Fractionated Radiation Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors George M. Cannon and Minesh P. Mehta Chapter 251 Fractionated Radiation Therapy for Benign Brain Tumors Igor J. Barani, Penny K. Sneed, and Michael W. McDermott Chapter 252 Fractionated Radiotherapy for Spine Tumors Nadia Issa Laack and Paul D. Brown Chapter 253 Interstitial and Intracavitary Irradiation of Brain Tumors Manish K. Aghi, Michael W. McDermott, Penny K. Sneed, and Mitchel S. Berger parT 4 Techniques of Radiosurgery Chapter 254 Proton Radiosurgery Marc R. Bussiere, Jay S. Loeffler, Paul H. Chapman, Ethan Cascio, and Helen A. Shih Chapter 255 Linear Accelerator Radiosurgery: Technical Aspects Antonio A. F. De Salles, Alessandra A. Gorgulho, and Nzhde Agazaryan Chapter 256 Gamma Knife Radiosurgery Ajay Niranjan, Josef Novotny Jr, Hideyuki Kano, Douglas Kondziolka, L. Dade Lunsford, and John C. Flickinger Chapter 257 Image-Guided Robotic Radiosurgery: The CyberKnife Pantaleo Romanelli, David E. Morris, John R. Adler Jr, and Matthew G. Ewend parT 5 Intracranial Stereotactic Radiosurgery Chapter 258 Radiosurgery of Malignant Tumors William A. Friedman and Gregory J. A. Murad Chapter 259 Radiosurgery of Benign Intracranial Tumors Jean Regis, Marc Leveque, Frederic Castinetti, and Pierre-Hugues Roche Chapter 260 Radiosurgery for Intracranial Vascular Malformations Bruce E. Pollock Chapter 261 Radiosurgery for Functional Disorders Douglas Kondziolka and Dong Gyu Kim parT 6 Extracranial Stereotactic Radiosurgery Chapter 262 Stereotactic Radiosurgery for the Treatment of Spinal Metastases Mark H. Bilsky and Yoshiya Yamada Chapter 263 Radiosurgery for Benign Spine Tumors and Vascular Malformations Peter C. Gerszten SECTION X Spine parT 1 Overview Chapter 264 Overview and Historical Considerations Volker K. H. Sonntag, Dennis G. Vollmer, and Chritopher I. Shaffrey parT 2 Basic Science of the Spine Chapter 265 Concepts and Mechanisms of Spinal Biomechanics Vincent J. Miele, Tarun Bhalla, G. Alexander Jones, and Edward C. Benzel Chapter 266 Biomaterials and Biomechanics of Spinal Arthroplasty Brian R. Subach, Anne G. Copay, and Thomas C. Schuler Chapter 267 Principles of Translation of Biologic Therapies in Spinal Cord Injury James Guest Chapter 268 Current Status and Future Direction of Management of Spinal Cord Injury Gregory W. J. Hawryluk and Michael G. Fehlings Chapter 269 Intraoperative Monitoring of the Spinal Cord and Nerve Roots Victor X. D. Yang and Michael G. Fehlings Chapter 270 Concepts of Disk Degeneration and Regeneration Jonathon R. Ball and R. John Hurlbert Chapter 271 Bone Metabolism and Osteoporosis and Its Effects on Spinal Disease and Surgical Treatments Michael Y. Wang and Daniel J. Hoh parT 3 Approach to the Patient Chapter 272 Differential Diagnosis and Initial Management of Spine Pathology Bradford A. Curt, Charles Kuntz IV, and Ferhan A. Asghar Chapter 273 Diagnosis and Management of Diskogenic Lower Back Pain Frank L. Acosta and Christopher P. Ames Chapter 274 Metabolic and Other Nondegenerative Causes of Low Back Pain Omar N. Syed, Christopher E. Mandigo, and Michael G. Kaiser Chapter 275 Evaluation, Indications, and Techniques of Revision Spine Surgery Robert F. Heary and Reza J. Karimi parT 4 Infection of the Spine Chapter 276 Infections of the Spine Dennis G. Vollmer and Nitin Tandon Chapter 277 Fungal and Tubercular Infections of the Spine Patrick A. Sugrue and Tyler R. Koski parT 5 Degenerative Disease of the Spine Chapter 278 Treatment of Disk and Ligamentous Diseases of the Cervical Spine Vladimir Y. Dadashev and Gerald E. Rodts Jr Chapter 279 Posterior Approach to Cervical Degenerative Disease Peter D. Angevine and Paul C. McCormick Chapter 280 Anterior Approach for Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Mark Garrett, Juan Bartolomei, and Volker K. H. Sonntag Chapter 281 Spondyloarthropathies (Including Ankylosing Spondylitis) Ferhan A. Asghar, Gregory P. Graziano, and Charles Kuntz IV Chapter 282 Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament and Other Enthesopathies Daniel J. Hoh, Allan D. Levi, and Michael Y. Wang Chapter 283 Treatment of Thoracic Disk Herniation Samer Ghostine, Srinath Samudrala, and J. Patrick Johnson Chapter 284 Treatment of Disk Disease of the Lumbar Spine Michael K. Rosner and Victoria A. Campbell Chapter 285 Lumbar Spine Stenosis Nancy E. Epstein Chapter 286 Pediatric Spondylolisthesis Davis L. Reames and Christopher I. Shaffrey Chapter 287 Adult Thoracolumbar Scoliosis Frank L. Acosta Jr, and Christopher P. Ames Chapter 288 Flat Back and Sagittal Plane Deformity D. Kojo Hamilton, Rod J. Oskouian Jr, and Christopher I. Shaffrey parT 6 Congenital and Developmental Anomalies of the Spine Chapter 289 Acquired Abnormalities of the Craniocervical Junction Arnold H. Menezes and Gregory W. Albert Chapter 290 Congenital Abnormalities of the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Manish N. Shah and Paul Santiago parT 7 Techniques for Spinal Procedures Chapter 291 Basic Principles of Spinal Internal Fixation Steven W. Chang, Neil R. Crawford, Volker K. H. Sonntag, and Curtis A. Dickman Chapter 292 Bone Graft Options, Bone Graft Substitutes, and Bone Harvest Techniques Richard Lebow, Tom Yao, Charles B. Stevenson, and Joseph S. Cheng Chapter 293 Cervical Arthroplasty Sanjay S. Dhall, Daniel C. Lu, Regis W. Haid, and Praveen V. Mummaneni Chapter 294 Lumbar Arthroplasty: Total Disk Replacement and Nucleus Replacement Technologies Domagoj Coric and Paul K. Kim Chapter 295 Nucleoplasty and Posterior Dynamic Stabilization Systems Joel A. Bauman, Boyle C. Cheng, and William C. Welch Chapter 296 Spinopelvic Fixation Luis M. Tumialan and Praveen V. Mummaneni parT 8 Instrumentation in Spinal Surgery Chapter 297 Anterior Cervical Instrumentation U. Kumar Kakarla, Curtis A. Dickman, and Volker K. H. Sonntag Chapter 298 Occiput, C1, and C2 Instrumentation Amy Lee and Neill M. Wright Chapter 299 Posterior Subaxial and Cervicothoracic Instrumentation Christopher Wolfla and Matthew L. Miller Chapter 300 Anterior Thoracic Instrumentation Omar N. Syed, Paul C. McCormick, and Michael G. Kaiser Chapter 301 Posterior Thoracic Instrumentation James M. Schuster and Neil R. Malhotra Chapter 302 Anterior Lumbar Instrumentation Robert Morgan Stuart, Michael G. Kaiser, and Peter D. Angevine Chapter 303 Posterior Lumbar Instrumentation Justin S. Smith, Richard G. Fessler, and Christopher I. Shaffrey Chapter 304 Posterior, Transforaminal, and Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Techniques and Instrumentation Adam S. Kanter, Andrew T. Dailey, and Praveen V. Mummaneni Chapter 305 Image-Guided Spinal Navigation: Principles and Clinical Applications Iain H. Kalfas Chapter 306 Thoracoscopic Approaches to the Spine Francisco A. Ponce, Nicholas Theodore, and Curtis A. Dickman Chapter 307 Minimally Invasive Techniques for Lumbar Disorders Alfred T. Ogden and Richard G. Fessler parT 9 Tumors of the Spine Chapter 308 Tumors of the Craniovertebral Junction Arnold H. Menezes Chapter 309 Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults Alfred T. Ogden, Theodore H. Schwartz, and Paul C. McCormick Chapter 310 Evaluation and Management of Spinal Axis Tumors: Benign and Primary Malignant Patrick Hsieh and Ziya L. Gokaslan Chapter 311 Evaluation and Management of Spinal Axis Tumors: Metastatic Paul Klimo Jr, Ganesh Rao, and Laurence D. Rhines parT 10 Spinal Trauma Chapter 312 Assessment of the Cervical Spine After Trauma Dennis G. Vollmer, Marc E. Eichler, and Arthur L. Jenkins III Chapter 313 Evaluation and Management of Craniocervical Dissociation Brian Walsh and Vincent C. Traynelis Chapter 314 Atlantoaxial Rotatory Subluxation, Transverse Ligament Injury Andrew M. Bauer and Daniel K. Resnick Chapter 315 Evaluation and Treatment of Odontoid and Hangman's Fractures Paul M. Arnold, Neal G. Haynes, and Brian C. Kelley Chapter 316 Pathology of the Cervicothoracic Junction: Evaluation and Treatment Peter S. Amenta and James S. Harrop Chapter 317 Transient Quadriparesis and Athletic Injuries of the Cervical Spine Jay Jagannathan, Justin S. Smith, and Christopher I. Shaffrey Chapter 318 Diagnosis and Management of Thoracic Spine Fractures Nestor D. Tomycz and David O. Okonkwo Chapter 319 Thoracolumbar Trauma Ryan Janicki, Alexander R. Vaccaro, and Brian K. Kwon Chapter 320 Sacral Fractures Noel I. Perin Chapter 321 Osteoporotic Fractures: Evaluation and Treatment with Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty R. Webster Crowley, H. Kwang Yeoh, M. Sean McKisic, Rod J. Oskouian Jr, and Aaron S. Dumont VOLUME 4 SECTION XI Trauma parT 1 Introduction Chapter 322 Introduction to Traumatic Brain Injury M. Ross Bullock and David A. Hovda parT 2 Basic and Clinical Science Chapter 323 Epidemiology of Traumatic Brain Injury Joost W. Schouten and Andrew I. R. Maas Chapter 324 Biomechanical Basis of Traumatic Brain Injury David F. Meaney, Stephen E. Olvey, and Thomas A. Gennarelli Chapter 325 Neuropathology of Traumatic Brain Injury Peter C. Blumbergs Chapter 326 Animal Models of Traumatic Brain Injury Patrick M. Kochanek and C. Edward Dixon Chapter 327 Neurochemical Pathomechanisms in Traumatic Brain Injury J. Chris Zacko, Gregory W. J. Hawryluk, and M. Ross Bullock Chapter 328 Regeneration and Repair R. Mark Richardson and M. Ross Bullock Chapter 329 Current Concepts of Hypothermia in Traumatic Brain Injury W. Dalton Dietrich and Helen M. Bramlett parT 3 Radiology in Traumatic Brain Surgery Chapter 330 Imaging of Traumatic Brain Injury Tuong H. Le and Alisa D. Gean parT 4 Management of Traumatic Brain Surgery Chapter 331 Clinical Pathophysiology of Traumatic Brain Injury Kiarash Shahlaie, Marike Zwienenberg-Lee, and J. Paul Muizelaar Chapter 332 Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Adults and Concussion in Sports Jamie Pardini, Julian E. Bailes, and Joseph C. Maroon Chapter 333 Initial Resuscitation, Prehospital Care, and Emergency Room Care in Traumatic Brain Injury Arun Jacob, M. Sean Grady, and Gregory G. Heuer Chapter 334 Critical Care Management of Traumatic Brain Injury Claudia Robertson and Leonardo Rangel-Castilla Chapter 335 Surgical Management of Traumatic Brain Injury J. Chris Zacko, Leo Harris, and M. Ross Bullock Chapter 336 Traumatic and Penetrating Head Injuries Bizhan Aarabi, Rocco Armonda, Randy S. Bell, and Frederick L. Stephens Chapter 337 Blast-Induced Neurotrauma Ben Waldau, Jason H. Huang, H. Richard Winn, and Gerald A. Grant Chapter 338 Indications and Techniques for Cranial Decompression after Traumatic Brain Injury Sharon Webb and Shelly D. Timmons Chapter 339 Craniofacial Injuries Peter L. Reilly and David J. David parT 5 Sequelae and Outcome in Traumatic Brain Surgery Chapter 340 Prognosis after Traumatic Brain Injury Andrew I. R. Maas, Doortje C. Engel, and Hester Lingsma Chapter 341 Traumatic Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistulas Peter L. Reilly, Peter J. Wormald, and Lawrence F. Marshall Chapter 342 Rehabilitation of Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury Cathy Chuang, Nicole L. Stroud, and Ross Zafonte SECTION XII Vascular parT 1 Overview: Basic Science, Medical Management, and Radiologic Evaluation Chapter 343 Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism and Cerebral Ischemia Caroline C. Tan, Vini G. Khurana, Eduardo E. Benarroch, and Fredric B. Meyer Chapter 344 Acute Medical Management of Ischemic/Hemorrhagic Stroke Thomas M. Hemmen and Justin A. Zivin Chapter 345 Intraoperative Cerebral Protection Nicholas C. Bambakidis, Jason Wilson, Yin C. Hu, and Warren R. Selman Chapter 346 Circulatory Arrest with Deep Hypothermia Paul Gigante, Robert A. Solomon, and E. Sander Connolly Jr Chapter 347 Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography and Neurosonology David W. Newell, Arthur M. Lam, and Andrei V. Alexandrov Chapter 348 Neurovascular Imaging William W. Ashley Jr, Roger Lichtenbaum, and Fady T. Charbel parT 2 Occlusive Vascular Disease Chapter 349 Carotid Occlusive Disease: Natural History and Medical Management Robert E. Harbaugh, Christopher M. Loftus, James D. Fleck, and Jose Biller Chapter 350 Carotid Endarterectomy Michael J. Link, Kelly D. Flemming, and Fredric B. Meyer Chapter 351 Carotid Artery Angioplasty and Stenting Adnan H. Siddiqui, Robert D. Ecker, J. Mocco, Kenneth D. Snyder, Elad I. Levy, and L. Nelson Hopkins Chapter 352 Blunt Cerebrovascular Injury Gregory G. Heuer, Robert W. Hurst, and Peter D. LeRoux Chapter 353 Nonatherosclerotic Carotid Lesions Michael J. Alexander and Parham Moftakhar Chapter 354 Extracranial Vertebral Artery Diseases Fady T. Charbel, Ali Alaraj, and Sepideh Amin-Hanjani Chapter 355 Intracranial Occlusive Disease Steven W. Hwang, Seon Kyu Lee, and Carlos A. David Chapter 356 Adult Moyamoya Disease Yasuhiro Yonekawa, Yasushi Takagi, and Nadia Khan Chapter 357 Cerebral Venous and Sinus Thrombosis Kenneth C. Liu, Bronwyn E. Hamilton, and Stanley L. Barnwell parT 3 Nonlesional Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage Chapter 358 Nonlesional Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage Hamad Farhat, Thomas Kretschmer, and Jacques J. Morcos parT 4 Hemorrhagic Vascular Disease Chapter 359 Genetics of Intracranial Aneurysms Amos K. Ladouceur, Ali Shirzadi, and Wouter I. Shirzadi Chapter 360 The Natural History of Cerebral Aneurysms Gavin W. Britz and H. Richard Winn Chapter 361 Pathobiology of Intracranial Aneurysms Teresa Santiago-Sim and Dong H. Kim Chapter 362 Surgical Decision Making for the Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms Lief-Erik Bohman, H. Richard Winn, and Peter D. LeRoux Chapter 363 Perioperative Management of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Julian Spears, R. Loch Macdonald, and Bryce Weir Chapter 364 Cerebral Vasospasm J. Max Findlay Chapter 365 Surgical Approaches to Intracranial Aneurysms Gregory G. Heuer, Michael T. Lawton, H. Richard Winn, and Peter LeRoux Chapter 366 Microsurgery of Paraclinoid Aneurysms Rose Du and Arthur L. Day Chapter 367 Intracranial Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysms Amir R. Dehdashti and M. Christopher Wallace Chapter 368 Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms Judy Huang, Anand V. Germanwala, and Rafael J. Tamargo Chapter 369 Microsurgery of Distal Anterior Cerebral Artery Aneurysms Andrew F. Ducruet and E. Sander Connolly Jr Chapter 370 Surgical Management of Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysms Alexander M. Mason, C. Michael Cawley, and Daniel L. Barrow Chapter 371 Microsurgery of Vertebral Artery, Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery, and Vertebrobasilar Junction Aneurysms Eric C. Chang, Brian L. Hoh, and Christopher S. Ogilvy Chapter 372 Basilar Trunk Aneurysms Gabriel Zada, Steven Giannotta Chapter 373 Microsurgery of Basilar Apex Aneurysms Bernard R. Bendok, Daniel L. Surdell, Arun K. Sherma, and H. Hunt Batjer Chapter 374 Endovascular Approaches to Intracranial Aneurysms Felipe C. Albuquerque and Cameron G. McDougall Chapter 375 Endovascular Coiling of Intracranial Aneurysms: Supporting Evidence Cameron G. McDougall and Felipe C. Albuquerque Chapter 376 Endovascular Stenting of Intracranial Aneurysms David J. Fiorella, Elad I. Levy, Pedro Lylyk, and Peter A. Rasmussen Chapter 377 Endovascular Hunterian Ligation Raqeeb Haque, Christopher P. Kellner, and Sean D. Lavine Chapter 378 Microsurgical Management of Giant Intracranial Aneurysms Nader Sanai and Michael T. Lawton Chapter 379 Infectious Intracranial Aneurysms Scott A. Meyer and Joshua B. Bederson Chapter 380 Revascularization Techniques for Complex Aneurysms and Skull Base Tumors Joshua R. Dusick, Nestor R. Gonzalez, and Neil A. Martin Chapter 381 Multimodality Management of Complex Cerebrovascular Lesions Kajetan L. von Eckardstein, Bruce E. Pollock, Giuseppe Lanzino, and Fredric B. Meyer Chapter 382 Traumatic Cerebral Aneurysms Secondary to Penetrating Intracranial Injuries Kiarash Golshani, Gavin W. Britz, Alice Yoo, and G. Alexander West parT 5 True Arteriovenous Malformations Chapter 383 Pathobiology of True Arteriovenous Malformations Cormac G. Gavin and Neil D. Kitchen Chapter 384 The Natural History of Intracranial Vascular Malformations Kelly D. Flemming and Robert D. Brown Jr Chapter 385 Therapeutic Decision Making Michael Morgan Chapter 386 Adjuvant Endovascular Management of Brain Arteriovenous Malformations Robert M. Starke, Sean D. Lavine, Philip M. Meyers, and E. Sander Connolly Jr Chapter 387 Endovascular Management of Arteriovenous Malformations for Cure Robert M. Starke, Sean D. Lavine, E. Sander Connolly Jr, and Philip M. Meyers Chapter 388 Microsurgical Management of Arteriovenous Malformations Thomas Kretschmer and Roberto C. Heros Chapter 389 Surgical and Radiosurgical Management of Giant Arteriovenous Malformations Steven D. Chang and Gary K. Steinberg parT 6 Arteriovenous Fistulas Chapter 390 Carotid-Cavernous Fistulas Giuseppe Lanzino and Fredric B. Meyer Chapter 391 Treatment of Other Intracranial Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas Sandra Narayanan and Michael Cawley parT 7 Cavernomas Chapter 392 Natural History of Cavernous Malformations Joseph M. Zabramski and Iman Feiz-Erfan Chapter 393 Genetics of Cerebral Cavernous Malformations Ali Kemal Ozturk, Angeliki Louvi, and Murat Gunel Chapter 394 Supratentorial and Infratentorial Cavernous Malformations Gregory P. Lekovic, Randall W. Porter, and Robert F. Spetzler parT 8 Arteriovenous Malformations and Fistulas of the Spine Chapter 395 Classification of Spinal Arteriovenous Lesions: Arteriovenous Fistulas and Arteriovenous Malformations 4146 Shervin R. Dashti, Maria Toledo, Louis J. Kim, and Robert F. Spetzler Chapter 396 Endovascular Treatment of Spinal Vascular Malformations Yakov Gologorsky and Aman B. Patel Chapter 397 Spinal Vascular Malformations Aaron S. Dumont and Edward H. Oldfield parT 9 Miscellaneous Chapter 398 Pregnancy and the Vascular Lesion Khoi D. Than and B. Gregory Thompson Jr