The Metabolism of Arsenite

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Opis: The Metabolism of Arsenite - Joanna M. Santini

Up to 200 million people in 70 countries are at risk from drinking water contaminated with arsenic, which is a major cause of chronic debilitating illnesses and fatal cancers. Until recently little was known about the mobility of arsenic, and how redox transformations determined its movement into or out of water supplies. Although human activities contribute to the release of arsenic from minerals, it is now clear that bacteria are responsible for most of the redox transformation of arsenic in the environment. Bacterial oxidation of arsenite (to the less mobile arsenate) has been known since 1918, but it was not until 2000 that a bacterium was shown to gain energy from this process. Since then a wide range of arsenite-oxidizing bacteria have been isolated, including aerobes and anaerobes; heterotrophs and autotrophs; thermophiles, mesophiles and psychrophiles. This book reviews recent advances in the study of such bacteria. After a section on background-geology and health issues-the main body of the book concerns the cellular machinery of arsenite oxidation. It concludes by examining possible applications. Topics treated are: The geology and cycling of arsenic Arsenic and disease Arsenite oxidation: physiology, enzymes, genes, and gene regulation. Community genomics and functioning, and the evolution of arsenite oxidation Microbial arsenite oxidation in bioremediation Biosensors for arsenic in drinking water and industrial effluentsArsenic in the environment D. Kossoff & K.A. Hudson-Edward Introduction Chemistry and mineralogy of arsenic Distribution of arsenic in the environment Processes of arsenic cycling in the environment Giant Mine,Yellowknife, Canada: Arsenite waste as the legacy of gold mining and processing M. Bromstad & H.E. Jamieson Introduction Background Arsenic and arsenite in mine wastes and surrounding area Transformation and remobilization of arsenic species Site remediation Summary Genotoxic and carcinogenic risk of arsenic exposure. Influence of interindividual genetic variability R. Marcos & A. Hernandez Introduction Carcinogenic risk Genotoxic risk Genetic polymorphisms affecting carcinogenic risk Genetic polymorphisms affecting genotoxic risk Conclusions Overview of microbial arsenic metabolism and resistance J.F. Stolz Introduction Arsenic resistance Arsenic in energy generation Prokaryotic aerobic oxidation of arsenite T.H. Osborne & J.M. Santini Introduction Aerobic arsenite-oxidizing bacteria Arsenite metabolism Aerobic arsenite-oxidizing communities Summary and future directions Anaerobic oxidation of arsenite by autotrophic bacteria: The view from Mono Lake, California R.S. Oremland, J.F. Stolz & C.W. Saltikov Introduction Nitrate-respiring arsenite-oxidizers An annotated arsenate reductase that runs in reverse Anoxygenic photosynthesis fueled by arsenite Arsenite oxidase M.D. Heath, B. Schoepp-Cothenet, T.H. Osborne & J.M. Santini Introduction Characteristics of the arsenite oxidase Microbial arsenic response and metabolism in the genomics era P.N. Bertin, L. Geist, D. Halter, S. Koechler, M. Marchal & F. Arsene-Ploetze Introduction Descriptive and comparative genomics High-throughput genomics reveal the functioning of microorganisms Conclusions Arsenite oxidation - regulation of gene expression M.Wojnowska & S. Djordjevic Introduction Multiple modes of arsenite oxidase regulation AioSR and their involvement in Aio regulation Quorum sensing Heat-shock protein DNAJ Conclusions Evolution of arsenite oxidation R. van Lis,W. Nitschke, S. Duval & B. Schoepp-Cothenet Introduction Molecular description of arsenic bioenergetic enzymes Function of the enzymes Phylogenetic analysis of Aio and Arr Taking bioenergetics into account Evolutionary scenario of arsenite oxidation Remediation using arsenite-oxidizing bacteria F. Delavat, M.-C. Lett & D. Lievremont Introduction Arsenite oxidation-based remediation bioprocesses Conclusion Development of biosensors for the detection of arsenic in drinking water C. French, K. de Mora, N. Joshi, J. Haseloff & J. Ajioka Introduction Biosensors for detection of environmental toxins Biosensors for arsenic Conclusions Subject index


Szczegóły: The Metabolism of Arsenite - Joanna M. Santini

Tytuł: The Metabolism of Arsenite
Autor: Joanna M. Santini
Producent: CRC Press Inc.
ISBN: 9780415697194
Rok produkcji: 2012
Ilość stron: 218
Oprawa: Twarda
Waga: 0.61 kg


Recenzje: The Metabolism of Arsenite - Joanna M. Santini

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The Metabolism of Arsenite

Up to 200 million people in 70 countries are at risk from drinking water contaminated with arsenic, which is a major cause of chronic debilitating illnesses and fatal cancers. Until recently little was known about the mobility of arsenic, and how redox transformations determined its movement into or out of water supplies. Although human activities contribute to the release of arsenic from minerals, it is now clear that bacteria are responsible for most of the redox transformation of arsenic in the environment. Bacterial oxidation of arsenite (to the less mobile arsenate) has been known since 1918, but it was not until 2000 that a bacterium was shown to gain energy from this process. Since then a wide range of arsenite-oxidizing bacteria have been isolated, including aerobes and anaerobes; heterotrophs and autotrophs; thermophiles, mesophiles and psychrophiles. This book reviews recent advances in the study of such bacteria. After a section on background-geology and health issues-the main body of the book concerns the cellular machinery of arsenite oxidation. It concludes by examining possible applications. Topics treated are: The geology and cycling of arsenic Arsenic and disease Arsenite oxidation: physiology, enzymes, genes, and gene regulation. Community genomics and functioning, and the evolution of arsenite oxidation Microbial arsenite oxidation in bioremediation Biosensors for arsenic in drinking water and industrial effluentsArsenic in the environment D. Kossoff & K.A. Hudson-Edward Introduction Chemistry and mineralogy of arsenic Distribution of arsenic in the environment Processes of arsenic cycling in the environment Giant Mine,Yellowknife, Canada: Arsenite waste as the legacy of gold mining and processing M. Bromstad & H.E. Jamieson Introduction Background Arsenic and arsenite in mine wastes and surrounding area Transformation and remobilization of arsenic species Site remediation Summary Genotoxic and carcinogenic risk of arsenic exposure. Influence of interindividual genetic variability R. Marcos & A. Hernandez Introduction Carcinogenic risk Genotoxic risk Genetic polymorphisms affecting carcinogenic risk Genetic polymorphisms affecting genotoxic risk Conclusions Overview of microbial arsenic metabolism and resistance J.F. Stolz Introduction Arsenic resistance Arsenic in energy generation Prokaryotic aerobic oxidation of arsenite T.H. Osborne & J.M. Santini Introduction Aerobic arsenite-oxidizing bacteria Arsenite metabolism Aerobic arsenite-oxidizing communities Summary and future directions Anaerobic oxidation of arsenite by autotrophic bacteria: The view from Mono Lake, California R.S. Oremland, J.F. Stolz & C.W. Saltikov Introduction Nitrate-respiring arsenite-oxidizers An annotated arsenate reductase that runs in reverse Anoxygenic photosynthesis fueled by arsenite Arsenite oxidase M.D. Heath, B. Schoepp-Cothenet, T.H. Osborne & J.M. Santini Introduction Characteristics of the arsenite oxidase Microbial arsenic response and metabolism in the genomics era P.N. Bertin, L. Geist, D. Halter, S. Koechler, M. Marchal & F. Arsene-Ploetze Introduction Descriptive and comparative genomics High-throughput genomics reveal the functioning of microorganisms Conclusions Arsenite oxidation - regulation of gene expression M.Wojnowska & S. Djordjevic Introduction Multiple modes of arsenite oxidase regulation AioSR and their involvement in Aio regulation Quorum sensing Heat-shock protein DNAJ Conclusions Evolution of arsenite oxidation R. van Lis,W. Nitschke, S. Duval & B. Schoepp-Cothenet Introduction Molecular description of arsenic bioenergetic enzymes Function of the enzymes Phylogenetic analysis of Aio and Arr Taking bioenergetics into account Evolutionary scenario of arsenite oxidation Remediation using arsenite-oxidizing bacteria F. Delavat, M.-C. Lett & D. Lievremont Introduction Arsenite oxidation-based remediation bioprocesses Conclusion Development of biosensors for the detection of arsenic in drinking water C. French, K. de Mora, N. Joshi, J. Haseloff & J. Ajioka Introduction Biosensors for detection of environmental toxins Biosensors for arsenic Conclusions Subject index

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Szczegóły: The Metabolism of Arsenite - Joanna M. Santini

Tytuł: The Metabolism of Arsenite
Autor: Joanna M. Santini
Producent: CRC Press Inc.
ISBN: 9780415697194
Rok produkcji: 2012
Ilość stron: 218
Oprawa: Twarda
Waga: 0.61 kg


Recenzje: The Metabolism of Arsenite - Joanna M. Santini

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