Solar and Infrared Radiation Measurements

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Opis: Solar and Infrared Radiation Measurements - Joseph Michalsky, Thomas Stoffel, Frank Vignola

The rather specialized field of solar and infrared radiation measurement has become more and more important in the face of growing demands by the renewable energy and climate change research communities for data that are more accurate and have increased temporal and spatial resolution. Updating decades of acquired knowledge in the field, Solar and Infrared Radiation Measurements details the strengths and weaknesses of instruments used to conduct such solar and infrared radiation measurements. Topics covered include: Radiometer design and performance Equipment calibration, installation, operation, and maintenance Data quality assessment Methods to use measured data to estimate irradiance for any surface With a broad range of content that will benefit students and more experienced readers alike, this resource serves as a primer and technical reference that presents the basic terminology and fundamentals for resource assessment. It explores the history of solar radiation instruments and addresses direct normal, global, diffuse, and tilted measurements, as well as the characteristics of instruments used for these measurements. The authors consider methods of assessing the uncertainty of solar measurements and then cover albedo, infrared, net, and spectral irradiance measurements and instrumentation. The book devotes a section to other meteorological instruments, and another to the basics for installing and operating a solar monitoring station. Appendices include information on solar resource assessment modeling and satellite-derived irradiance, along with other useful material. This book's authors are experts who each have more than 30 years of experience developing and operating multiple measurement stations, working with industry to improve radiometry, and conducting various research projects. "... fills a significant gap in the literature, providing updated information about the latest radiation measurement instrumentation and guidelines for its use. Another advantage of the new book is that it is structured as a textbook, including questions for the student at the end of each chapter, which increases its appeal beyond a reference for specialists." -Laura Hinkelman, PhD., University of Washington "... provides the type of details needed for engineering a solar radiation monitoring system, including a history of devices used, detailed descriptions of the state-of-the-art devices, methods of calibration and uncertainty estimation, setup of a solar monitoring station, and manufacturers who can provide the equipment." -Frank Rytkonen, P.E., Oregon Institute of Technology, Portland, USA "... the first comprehensive treatment of measurement and instrumentation of solar and infrared radiation. ... a well-organized approach to covering the topics including important concepts, physics principles, classical operational radiometry, state of the art technologies for solar and meteorological measurements, solar monitoring station, etc. ... examples are provided to help students learn the material. ... not only a suitable textbook for academic researchers and solar engineering students, but also an indispensable resource for solar systems engineers as well." -Prof. Xin Wang, PhD, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, USAMeasuring Solar and Infrared Radiation Solar Resource Definitions and Terminology Introduction The Sun Extraterrestrial Radiation Solar Coordinates Zenith, Azimuth, and Hour Angles Solar, Universal, and Local Standard Time Solar Position Calculation Sunrise and Sunset Times Global, Direct Normal, and Diffuse Irradiance Solar Radiation on Tilted Surfaces Spectral Nature of Solar Radiation Fundamentals of Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer Photodiodes and Solar Cell Prerequisites Models Historic Milestones in Solar and Infrared Radiation Measurement Introduction Earliest Observations of the Sun and the Nature of Light Nineteenth-Century Radiometers Operational Radiometers of the Twentieth Century Recent Advances in Solar Measurements Direct Normal Irradiance Overview of Direct Normal Irradiance Pyrheliometer Geometry Operational Thermopile Pyrheliometers Absolute Cavity Radiometers Uncertainty Analysis for Pyrheliometer Calibration Uncertainty Analysis for Operational Thermopile Pyrheliometers Uncertainty Analysis for Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Measurements of Direct Normal Irradiance Direct Normal Irradiance Models Historical and Current Surface-Measured Direct Normal Irradiance Data Measuring Global Irradiance Introduction to Global Horizontal Irradiance Measurements Black-Disk Thermopile Pyranometers Black-and-White Pyranometers Photodiode-Based Pyranometers Calibration of Pyranometers Pyranometer Calibration Uncertainties Diffuse Irradiance Introduction The Measurement of Diffuse Irradiance Calibration of Diffuse Pyranometers Value of Accurate Diffuse Measurements Rotating Shadowband Radiometers Introduction The Rotating Shadowband Radiometer The Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Measuring Solar Radiation on a Tilted Surface Introduction Effect of Tilt on Single Black Detector Pyranometers Effect of Tilt on Black-and-White Pyranometers Effect of Tilt on Photodiode Pyranometers Recommendations for Tilted Irradiance Measurements Notes on Modeling PV System Performance with Photodiode Pyranometers Albedo Introduction Broadband Albedo Spectral Albedo Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function Albedo Measurements Infrared Measurements Introduction Pyrgeometers Calibration Improved Calibrations Other Pyrgeometer Manufacturers Operational Considerations Net Radiation Measurements Introduction Single-Sensor (All-Wave) Net Radiometers Two-Sensor Net Radiometers Four-Sensor Net Radiometers Accuracy of Net Radiometers A Better Net Radiation Standard Net Radiometer Sources Solar Spectral Measurements Introduction The Extraterrestrial Solar Spectrum Atmospheric Interactions Broadband Filter Radiometry Narrow-Band Filter Radiometry Spectrometry Meteorological Measurements Introduction Ambient Temperature Wind Speed and Wind Direction Relative Humidity Pressure Recommended Minimum Accuracies for Operational Instruments Setting Up a Solar Monitoring Station Introduction Choosing a Site Grounding and Shielding Data Logger and Communications Measurement Interval Cleaning and Maintenance Record Keeping Importance of Reviewing Data Quality Control of Data Field Calibrations Physical Layout of a Solar-Monitoring Station Appendix A: Modeling Solar Radiation Appendix B: Solar Radiation Estimates Derived from Satellite Measurements Appendix C: Sun Path Charts Appendix D: Solar Position Algorithms Appendix E: Useful Conversion Factors Appendix F: Sources for Equipment Appendix G: BORCAL Report Appendix H: Sunshine Duration Appendix I: Failure Modes


Szczegóły: Solar and Infrared Radiation Measurements - Joseph Michalsky, Thomas Stoffel, Frank Vignola

Tytuł: Solar and Infrared Radiation Measurements
Autor: Joseph Michalsky, Thomas Stoffel, Frank Vignola
Producent: Taylor
ISBN: 9781439851890
Rok produkcji: 2012
Ilość stron: 410
Oprawa: Twarda
Waga: 0.77 kg


Recenzje: Solar and Infrared Radiation Measurements - Joseph Michalsky, Thomas Stoffel, Frank Vignola

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Solar and Infrared Radiation Measurements

, ,

  • Producent: Taylor
  • Oprawa: Twarda

The rather specialized field of solar and infrared radiation measurement has become more and more important in the face of growing demands by the renewable energy and climate change research communities for data that are more accurate and have increased temporal and spatial resolution. Updating decades of acquired knowledge in the field, Solar and Infrared Radiation Measurements details the strengths and weaknesses of instruments used to conduct such solar and infrared radiation measurements. Topics covered include: Radiometer design and performance Equipment calibration, installation, operation, and maintenance Data quality assessment Methods to use measured data to estimate irradiance for any surface With a broad range of content that will benefit students and more experienced readers alike, this resource serves as a primer and technical reference that presents the basic terminology and fundamentals for resource assessment. It explores the history of solar radiation instruments and addresses direct normal, global, diffuse, and tilted measurements, as well as the characteristics of instruments used for these measurements. The authors consider methods of assessing the uncertainty of solar measurements and then cover albedo, infrared, net, and spectral irradiance measurements and instrumentation. The book devotes a section to other meteorological instruments, and another to the basics for installing and operating a solar monitoring station. Appendices include information on solar resource assessment modeling and satellite-derived irradiance, along with other useful material. This book's authors are experts who each have more than 30 years of experience developing and operating multiple measurement stations, working with industry to improve radiometry, and conducting various research projects. "... fills a significant gap in the literature, providing updated information about the latest radiation measurement instrumentation and guidelines for its use. Another advantage of the new book is that it is structured as a textbook, including questions for the student at the end of each chapter, which increases its appeal beyond a reference for specialists." -Laura Hinkelman, PhD., University of Washington "... provides the type of details needed for engineering a solar radiation monitoring system, including a history of devices used, detailed descriptions of the state-of-the-art devices, methods of calibration and uncertainty estimation, setup of a solar monitoring station, and manufacturers who can provide the equipment." -Frank Rytkonen, P.E., Oregon Institute of Technology, Portland, USA "... the first comprehensive treatment of measurement and instrumentation of solar and infrared radiation. ... a well-organized approach to covering the topics including important concepts, physics principles, classical operational radiometry, state of the art technologies for solar and meteorological measurements, solar monitoring station, etc. ... examples are provided to help students learn the material. ... not only a suitable textbook for academic researchers and solar engineering students, but also an indispensable resource for solar systems engineers as well." -Prof. Xin Wang, PhD, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, USAMeasuring Solar and Infrared Radiation Solar Resource Definitions and Terminology Introduction The Sun Extraterrestrial Radiation Solar Coordinates Zenith, Azimuth, and Hour Angles Solar, Universal, and Local Standard Time Solar Position Calculation Sunrise and Sunset Times Global, Direct Normal, and Diffuse Irradiance Solar Radiation on Tilted Surfaces Spectral Nature of Solar Radiation Fundamentals of Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer Photodiodes and Solar Cell Prerequisites Models Historic Milestones in Solar and Infrared Radiation Measurement Introduction Earliest Observations of the Sun and the Nature of Light Nineteenth-Century Radiometers Operational Radiometers of the Twentieth Century Recent Advances in Solar Measurements Direct Normal Irradiance Overview of Direct Normal Irradiance Pyrheliometer Geometry Operational Thermopile Pyrheliometers Absolute Cavity Radiometers Uncertainty Analysis for Pyrheliometer Calibration Uncertainty Analysis for Operational Thermopile Pyrheliometers Uncertainty Analysis for Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Measurements of Direct Normal Irradiance Direct Normal Irradiance Models Historical and Current Surface-Measured Direct Normal Irradiance Data Measuring Global Irradiance Introduction to Global Horizontal Irradiance Measurements Black-Disk Thermopile Pyranometers Black-and-White Pyranometers Photodiode-Based Pyranometers Calibration of Pyranometers Pyranometer Calibration Uncertainties Diffuse Irradiance Introduction The Measurement of Diffuse Irradiance Calibration of Diffuse Pyranometers Value of Accurate Diffuse Measurements Rotating Shadowband Radiometers Introduction The Rotating Shadowband Radiometer The Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Measuring Solar Radiation on a Tilted Surface Introduction Effect of Tilt on Single Black Detector Pyranometers Effect of Tilt on Black-and-White Pyranometers Effect of Tilt on Photodiode Pyranometers Recommendations for Tilted Irradiance Measurements Notes on Modeling PV System Performance with Photodiode Pyranometers Albedo Introduction Broadband Albedo Spectral Albedo Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function Albedo Measurements Infrared Measurements Introduction Pyrgeometers Calibration Improved Calibrations Other Pyrgeometer Manufacturers Operational Considerations Net Radiation Measurements Introduction Single-Sensor (All-Wave) Net Radiometers Two-Sensor Net Radiometers Four-Sensor Net Radiometers Accuracy of Net Radiometers A Better Net Radiation Standard Net Radiometer Sources Solar Spectral Measurements Introduction The Extraterrestrial Solar Spectrum Atmospheric Interactions Broadband Filter Radiometry Narrow-Band Filter Radiometry Spectrometry Meteorological Measurements Introduction Ambient Temperature Wind Speed and Wind Direction Relative Humidity Pressure Recommended Minimum Accuracies for Operational Instruments Setting Up a Solar Monitoring Station Introduction Choosing a Site Grounding and Shielding Data Logger and Communications Measurement Interval Cleaning and Maintenance Record Keeping Importance of Reviewing Data Quality Control of Data Field Calibrations Physical Layout of a Solar-Monitoring Station Appendix A: Modeling Solar Radiation Appendix B: Solar Radiation Estimates Derived from Satellite Measurements Appendix C: Sun Path Charts Appendix D: Solar Position Algorithms Appendix E: Useful Conversion Factors Appendix F: Sources for Equipment Appendix G: BORCAL Report Appendix H: Sunshine Duration Appendix I: Failure Modes

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Cena 415,80 PLN
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Wysyłka: Niedostępna
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Szczegóły: Solar and Infrared Radiation Measurements - Joseph Michalsky, Thomas Stoffel, Frank Vignola

Tytuł: Solar and Infrared Radiation Measurements
Autor: Joseph Michalsky, Thomas Stoffel, Frank Vignola
Producent: Taylor
ISBN: 9781439851890
Rok produkcji: 2012
Ilość stron: 410
Oprawa: Twarda
Waga: 0.77 kg


Recenzje: Solar and Infrared Radiation Measurements - Joseph Michalsky, Thomas Stoffel, Frank Vignola

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