Responsible Innovation

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Opis: Responsible Innovation

Innovation is at the centre of current economic policy in most nations, and yet report after report from learned societies such as the Royal Society have repeatedly asked for a more responsible approach to innovation, one that has been echoed by the public. At a time when we face a bewildering number of emerging technologies (such as nanotechnologies, geoengineering, whole genome sequencing, and next generation computing) the topic is extremely timely. Responsible Innovation defines what this is, and brings together the issues, challenges and solutions in a constructive, accessible way. The book introduces key themes from academic and business literature to redefine our relationship with innovation and technology. Essentially multidisciplinary in nature, these include: Identifying and managing the risks of innovation in the present and future Building reflexive capacity into science and innovation to identify and manage the unanticipated wider impacts of innovation Opening up dialogue around innovation and emerging technologies to understand wider acceptability and public concerns Regulation, governance and adaptive management Key questions regarding the concepts of responsibility, accountability and liability Throughout the book, key aspects of Responsible Innovation are scrutinized, underpinned by current knowledge and using case studies / examples for illustration. It concludes with a forward look that pulls together the various fields of understanding and knowledge to ask "How do we ensure the responsible emergence of innovation in democratic society?"Foreword: Why Responsible Innovation? xi Jack Stilgoe Preface xvii List of Contributors xxiii 1. Innovation in the Twenty-First Century 1 John Bessant 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 How Can We Innovate? -- Innovation as a Process 3 1.3 Where Could We Innovate? -- Innovation Strategy 4 1.4 Reframing Innovation 5 1.5 Reframing Challenges for Twenty-First Century Innovation 9 1.5.1 The Spaghetti Challenge 9 1.5.2 The Sappho Challenge -- Bringing Stakeholders into the Frame 14 1.5.3 The Sustainability Challenge -- Innovation for Sustainable Development 17 1.6 Emergent Properties of the New Innovation Environment 21 2. A Framework for Responsible Innovation 27 Richard Owen, Jack Stilgoe, Phil Macnaghten, Mike Gorman, Erik Fisher, and Dave Guston 2.1 Introduction 27 2.2 Context: the Imperative for Responsible Innovation 30 2.2.1 Re-evaluating the Social Contract for Science and Innovation 30 2.2.2 The Responsibility Gap 31 2.2.3 The Dilemma of Control 33 2.2.4 Products and Purposes: the Democratic Governance of Intent 34 2.3 Locating Responsible Innovation within Prospective Dimensions of Responsibility 35 2.4 Four Dimensions of Responsible Innovation 38 2.5 Responsible Innovation: from Principles to Practice 39 2.5.1 Some Experiments in Responsible Innovation 40 2.6 Toward the Future: Building Capacity for Responsible Innovation 44 3. A Vision of Responsible Research and Innovation 51 Ren'e von Schomberg 3.1 Introduction: Technical Inventions, Innovation, and Responsibility 52 3.2 Responsible Research and Innovation and the Quest for the Right Impacts of Research 54 3.3 Defining the Right Impacts and Outcomes of Research 56 3.4 From Normative Anchor Points Toward the Defining of "Grand Challenges" and the Direction of Innovation 58 3.5 Responsible Research and Innovation: Organizing Collective Responsibility 59 3.5.1 Some Examples of Irresponsible Innovation 60 3.6 A Framework for Responsible Research and Innovation 63 3.6.1 Use of Technology Assessment and Technology Foresight 65 3.6.2 Application of Precautionary Principle 67 3.6.3 Innovation Governance 67 3.7 Outlook 71 4. Value Sensitive Design and Responsible Innovation 75 Jeroen van den Hoven 4.1 Introduction 75 4.2 Innovation and Moral Overload 77 4.3 Values and Design 78 4.4 Responsible Innovation 80 5. Responsible Innovation -- Opening Up Dialogue and Debate 85 Kathy Sykes and Phil Macnaghten 5.1 A Short History of Controversies about Science and Technology 85 5.2 The Evolution of Public Engagement 87 5.3 The Case of Genetically Modified Foods in the UK 90 5.4 Sciencewise and the Institutional Embedding of Public Engagement in the UK 92 5.5 Motivations for Public Dialogue 94 5.6 The Claims for Public Dialogue 97 5.7 How (and When) Can Debate and Dialogue Be Opened Up? 99 5.8 The Substance of Public Concerns and Their Implications for Governance 102 5.9 Concluding Remarks 104 6. "Daddy, Can I Have a Puddle Gator?": Creativity, Anticipation, and Responsible Innovation 109 David H. Guston 6.1 Introduction 109 6.2 Understanding Anticipation 111 6.3 The Politics of Novelty 112 6.4 The Challenge of Speculative Ethics 114 6.5 Conclusion 116 7. What Is "Responsible" about Responsible Innovation? Understanding the Ethical Issues 119 Alexei Grinbaum and Christopher Groves 7.1 Introduction 119 7.2 The Changing Meaning of Responsibility 120 7.2.1 From the Divine Corporation to the Sovereign Individual 120 7.2.2 Knowledge, Uncertainty, and Human Finitude 123 7.2.3 Reciprocal and Non-Reciprocal Responsibility 126 7.3 Beyond the Sovereign Individual: Collective Responsibility, Desire, and Cultural Narratives 128 7.3.1 Passion Sits Alongside Reason 128 7.3.2 Non-Consequentialist Individual Responsibility 130 7.3.3 Collective Political Responsibility 132 7.3.4 The Virtues of Responsible Innovation 134 7.3.5 Narratives Take over Where Cost--Benefit Analysis Fails 135 7.4 Conclusion: Responsibility and Meaning 139 8. Adaptive Governance for Responsible Innovation 143 Robert G. Lee and JudithPetts 8.1 Introduction 143 8.2 Risk and Adaptive Governance 145 8.3 Responsibility and Accountability 147 8.4 The Rationale for Regulation 150 8.5 Risk Regulation and Accountability for Product Safety 151 8.6 The Adaptation of Risk Regulation 154 8.7 Adaptive Innovation Governance: Limits and Needs 158 8.8 Conclusion 160 9. Responsible Innovation: Multi-Level Dynamics and Soft Intervention Practices 165 Erik Fisher and Arie Rip 9.1 Introduction 165 9.2 Discourse and Activities at Different Levels of Governance 166 9.2.1 International and Bi-Lateral Meetings 167 9.2.2 Legislative Initiatives 168 9.2.3 Research Funding Agencies 169 9.2.4 Intermediary Organizations and Consortia 171 9.2.5 Concrete Activities 172 9.3 Two Cases of "Soft" Intervention 173 9.3.1 STIRing the Capacities of Science and Innovation Practitioners 173 9.3.2 Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA) of Newly Emerging Science and Technology 175 9.4 Concluding Observations on Governance 177 10. Responsible Innovation in Finance: Directions and Implications 185 Fabian Muniesa and Marc Lenglet 10.1 Introduction 185 10.2 Perspectives on Responsible Innovation in Finance 187 10.2.1 Perspective on Function 187 10.2.2 Perspective on Moral Rules 188 10.2.3 Perspective on Internalized Values 188 10.2.4 Perspective on Aggregate Consequences 189 10.2.5 Perspective on Accountability 189 10.2.6 Perspective on Precaution 190 10.2.7 Perspective on Democracy 191 10.3 Some Directions for Further Reflection 191 10.4 Conclusion 194 11. Responsible Research and Innovation in Information and Communication Technology: Identifying and Engaging with the Ethical Implications of ICTs 199 Bernd Carsten Stahl, Grace Eden, and Marina Jirotka 11.1 Introduction 199 11.2 Conceptualizing Responsibility and Responsible Research and Innovation in ICT 200 11.2.1 Responsibility as a Social Ascription 200 11.2.2 Responsible Research and Innovation as Meta-Responsibility 201 11.2.3 Responsible Research and Innovation: the Four "P"s 202 11.3 Building a Framework for RRI in ICT 203 11.3.1 Product: ICTs and Their Ethical Implications 203 11.3.2 People: Landscape of ICT Ethics 208 11.3.3 Process: Governance of RRI in ICT 212 11.4 Critical Reflections 214 11.4.1 The Meta-Responsibilities of RRI 214 11.4.2 Further Research 215 12. Deliberation and Responsible Innovation: a Geoengineering Case Study 219 Karen Parkhill, Nick Pidgeon, Adam Corner, and Naomi Vaughan 12.1 Introduction 219 12.2 Public Perceptions of Geoengineering 222 12.3 Exploring Public Perceptions of Geoengineering: an Empirical Study 223 12.3.1 Context 223 12.3.2 Method: Deliberating SPICE 224 12.3.3 Analysis 225 12.4 Public Perceptions of Geoengineering through the Lens of Responsible Innovation 226 12.4.1 Intentions 226 12.4.2 Responsibility 229 12.4.3 Impacts 231 12.4.4 The Role of the Public 232 12.5 Conclusion: Geoengineering -- Responsible Innovation? 234 13. Visions, Hype, and Expectations: a Place for Responsibility 241 Elena Simakova and Christopher Coenen 13.1 Introduction 241 13.2 The Repertoires of Nano Futures 243 13.3 Narratives of Responsibility 253 13.3.1 Narrative 1: Nanofutures, Boundary Work and Technology Assessment Activities in the US and Germany 253 13.3.2 Narrative 2: Responsibility as Knowledge and Technology Transfer in the United States 256 13.4 Narratives, Visions and Conflicts: Lessons for RRI? 259 Endnotes: Building Capacity for Responsible Innovation 269 Jonny Hankins Building Capacity for Responsible Innovation: Awareness and Engagement 271 Less Stick and More Carrot: Building Capacity through Education 272 Index 275


Szczegóły: Responsible Innovation

Tytuł: Responsible Innovation
Producent: John Wiley
ISBN: 9781119966364
Rok produkcji: 2013
Ilość stron: 312
Oprawa: Twarda


Recenzje: Responsible Innovation

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Responsible Innovation

Innovation is at the centre of current economic policy in most nations, and yet report after report from learned societies such as the Royal Society have repeatedly asked for a more responsible approach to innovation, one that has been echoed by the public. At a time when we face a bewildering number of emerging technologies (such as nanotechnologies, geoengineering, whole genome sequencing, and next generation computing) the topic is extremely timely. Responsible Innovation defines what this is, and brings together the issues, challenges and solutions in a constructive, accessible way. The book introduces key themes from academic and business literature to redefine our relationship with innovation and technology. Essentially multidisciplinary in nature, these include: Identifying and managing the risks of innovation in the present and future Building reflexive capacity into science and innovation to identify and manage the unanticipated wider impacts of innovation Opening up dialogue around innovation and emerging technologies to understand wider acceptability and public concerns Regulation, governance and adaptive management Key questions regarding the concepts of responsibility, accountability and liability Throughout the book, key aspects of Responsible Innovation are scrutinized, underpinned by current knowledge and using case studies / examples for illustration. It concludes with a forward look that pulls together the various fields of understanding and knowledge to ask "How do we ensure the responsible emergence of innovation in democratic society?"Foreword: Why Responsible Innovation? xi Jack Stilgoe Preface xvii List of Contributors xxiii 1. Innovation in the Twenty-First Century 1 John Bessant 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 How Can We Innovate? -- Innovation as a Process 3 1.3 Where Could We Innovate? -- Innovation Strategy 4 1.4 Reframing Innovation 5 1.5 Reframing Challenges for Twenty-First Century Innovation 9 1.5.1 The Spaghetti Challenge 9 1.5.2 The Sappho Challenge -- Bringing Stakeholders into the Frame 14 1.5.3 The Sustainability Challenge -- Innovation for Sustainable Development 17 1.6 Emergent Properties of the New Innovation Environment 21 2. A Framework for Responsible Innovation 27 Richard Owen, Jack Stilgoe, Phil Macnaghten, Mike Gorman, Erik Fisher, and Dave Guston 2.1 Introduction 27 2.2 Context: the Imperative for Responsible Innovation 30 2.2.1 Re-evaluating the Social Contract for Science and Innovation 30 2.2.2 The Responsibility Gap 31 2.2.3 The Dilemma of Control 33 2.2.4 Products and Purposes: the Democratic Governance of Intent 34 2.3 Locating Responsible Innovation within Prospective Dimensions of Responsibility 35 2.4 Four Dimensions of Responsible Innovation 38 2.5 Responsible Innovation: from Principles to Practice 39 2.5.1 Some Experiments in Responsible Innovation 40 2.6 Toward the Future: Building Capacity for Responsible Innovation 44 3. A Vision of Responsible Research and Innovation 51 Ren'e von Schomberg 3.1 Introduction: Technical Inventions, Innovation, and Responsibility 52 3.2 Responsible Research and Innovation and the Quest for the Right Impacts of Research 54 3.3 Defining the Right Impacts and Outcomes of Research 56 3.4 From Normative Anchor Points Toward the Defining of "Grand Challenges" and the Direction of Innovation 58 3.5 Responsible Research and Innovation: Organizing Collective Responsibility 59 3.5.1 Some Examples of Irresponsible Innovation 60 3.6 A Framework for Responsible Research and Innovation 63 3.6.1 Use of Technology Assessment and Technology Foresight 65 3.6.2 Application of Precautionary Principle 67 3.6.3 Innovation Governance 67 3.7 Outlook 71 4. Value Sensitive Design and Responsible Innovation 75 Jeroen van den Hoven 4.1 Introduction 75 4.2 Innovation and Moral Overload 77 4.3 Values and Design 78 4.4 Responsible Innovation 80 5. Responsible Innovation -- Opening Up Dialogue and Debate 85 Kathy Sykes and Phil Macnaghten 5.1 A Short History of Controversies about Science and Technology 85 5.2 The Evolution of Public Engagement 87 5.3 The Case of Genetically Modified Foods in the UK 90 5.4 Sciencewise and the Institutional Embedding of Public Engagement in the UK 92 5.5 Motivations for Public Dialogue 94 5.6 The Claims for Public Dialogue 97 5.7 How (and When) Can Debate and Dialogue Be Opened Up? 99 5.8 The Substance of Public Concerns and Their Implications for Governance 102 5.9 Concluding Remarks 104 6. "Daddy, Can I Have a Puddle Gator?": Creativity, Anticipation, and Responsible Innovation 109 David H. Guston 6.1 Introduction 109 6.2 Understanding Anticipation 111 6.3 The Politics of Novelty 112 6.4 The Challenge of Speculative Ethics 114 6.5 Conclusion 116 7. What Is "Responsible" about Responsible Innovation? Understanding the Ethical Issues 119 Alexei Grinbaum and Christopher Groves 7.1 Introduction 119 7.2 The Changing Meaning of Responsibility 120 7.2.1 From the Divine Corporation to the Sovereign Individual 120 7.2.2 Knowledge, Uncertainty, and Human Finitude 123 7.2.3 Reciprocal and Non-Reciprocal Responsibility 126 7.3 Beyond the Sovereign Individual: Collective Responsibility, Desire, and Cultural Narratives 128 7.3.1 Passion Sits Alongside Reason 128 7.3.2 Non-Consequentialist Individual Responsibility 130 7.3.3 Collective Political Responsibility 132 7.3.4 The Virtues of Responsible Innovation 134 7.3.5 Narratives Take over Where Cost--Benefit Analysis Fails 135 7.4 Conclusion: Responsibility and Meaning 139 8. Adaptive Governance for Responsible Innovation 143 Robert G. Lee and JudithPetts 8.1 Introduction 143 8.2 Risk and Adaptive Governance 145 8.3 Responsibility and Accountability 147 8.4 The Rationale for Regulation 150 8.5 Risk Regulation and Accountability for Product Safety 151 8.6 The Adaptation of Risk Regulation 154 8.7 Adaptive Innovation Governance: Limits and Needs 158 8.8 Conclusion 160 9. Responsible Innovation: Multi-Level Dynamics and Soft Intervention Practices 165 Erik Fisher and Arie Rip 9.1 Introduction 165 9.2 Discourse and Activities at Different Levels of Governance 166 9.2.1 International and Bi-Lateral Meetings 167 9.2.2 Legislative Initiatives 168 9.2.3 Research Funding Agencies 169 9.2.4 Intermediary Organizations and Consortia 171 9.2.5 Concrete Activities 172 9.3 Two Cases of "Soft" Intervention 173 9.3.1 STIRing the Capacities of Science and Innovation Practitioners 173 9.3.2 Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA) of Newly Emerging Science and Technology 175 9.4 Concluding Observations on Governance 177 10. Responsible Innovation in Finance: Directions and Implications 185 Fabian Muniesa and Marc Lenglet 10.1 Introduction 185 10.2 Perspectives on Responsible Innovation in Finance 187 10.2.1 Perspective on Function 187 10.2.2 Perspective on Moral Rules 188 10.2.3 Perspective on Internalized Values 188 10.2.4 Perspective on Aggregate Consequences 189 10.2.5 Perspective on Accountability 189 10.2.6 Perspective on Precaution 190 10.2.7 Perspective on Democracy 191 10.3 Some Directions for Further Reflection 191 10.4 Conclusion 194 11. Responsible Research and Innovation in Information and Communication Technology: Identifying and Engaging with the Ethical Implications of ICTs 199 Bernd Carsten Stahl, Grace Eden, and Marina Jirotka 11.1 Introduction 199 11.2 Conceptualizing Responsibility and Responsible Research and Innovation in ICT 200 11.2.1 Responsibility as a Social Ascription 200 11.2.2 Responsible Research and Innovation as Meta-Responsibility 201 11.2.3 Responsible Research and Innovation: the Four "P"s 202 11.3 Building a Framework for RRI in ICT 203 11.3.1 Product: ICTs and Their Ethical Implications 203 11.3.2 People: Landscape of ICT Ethics 208 11.3.3 Process: Governance of RRI in ICT 212 11.4 Critical Reflections 214 11.4.1 The Meta-Responsibilities of RRI 214 11.4.2 Further Research 215 12. Deliberation and Responsible Innovation: a Geoengineering Case Study 219 Karen Parkhill, Nick Pidgeon, Adam Corner, and Naomi Vaughan 12.1 Introduction 219 12.2 Public Perceptions of Geoengineering 222 12.3 Exploring Public Perceptions of Geoengineering: an Empirical Study 223 12.3.1 Context 223 12.3.2 Method: Deliberating SPICE 224 12.3.3 Analysis 225 12.4 Public Perceptions of Geoengineering through the Lens of Responsible Innovation 226 12.4.1 Intentions 226 12.4.2 Responsibility 229 12.4.3 Impacts 231 12.4.4 The Role of the Public 232 12.5 Conclusion: Geoengineering -- Responsible Innovation? 234 13. Visions, Hype, and Expectations: a Place for Responsibility 241 Elena Simakova and Christopher Coenen 13.1 Introduction 241 13.2 The Repertoires of Nano Futures 243 13.3 Narratives of Responsibility 253 13.3.1 Narrative 1: Nanofutures, Boundary Work and Technology Assessment Activities in the US and Germany 253 13.3.2 Narrative 2: Responsibility as Knowledge and Technology Transfer in the United States 256 13.4 Narratives, Visions and Conflicts: Lessons for RRI? 259 Endnotes: Building Capacity for Responsible Innovation 269 Jonny Hankins Building Capacity for Responsible Innovation: Awareness and Engagement 271 Less Stick and More Carrot: Building Capacity through Education 272 Index 275

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Cena 464,10 PLN
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Szczegóły: Responsible Innovation

Tytuł: Responsible Innovation
Producent: John Wiley
ISBN: 9781119966364
Rok produkcji: 2013
Ilość stron: 312
Oprawa: Twarda


Recenzje: Responsible Innovation

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