Food Processing Handbook

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Opis: Food Processing Handbook - James G. Brennan

The second edition of the Food Processing Handbook presents a comprehensive review of technologies, procedures and innovations in food processing, stressing topics vital to the food industry today and pinpointing the trends in future research and development. Focusing on the technology involved, this handbook describes the principles and the equipment used as well as the changes ? physical, chemical, microbiological and organoleptic ? that occur during food preservation. In so doing, the text covers in detail such techniques as post-harvest handling, thermal processing, evaporation and dehydration, freezing, irradiation, high-pressure processing, emerging technologies and packaging. Separation and conversion operations widely used in the food industry are also covered as are the processes of baking, extrusion and frying. In addition, it addresses current concerns about the safety of processed foods (including HACCP systems, traceability and hygienic design of plant) and control of food processes, as well as the impact of processing on the environment, water and waste treatment, lean manufacturing and the roles of nanotechnology and fermentation in food processing. This two-volume set is a must-have for scientists and engineers involved in food manufacture, research and development in both industry and academia, as well as students of food-related topics at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. From Reviews on the First Edition: "This work should become a standard text for students of food technology, and is worthy of a place on the bookshelf of anybody involved in the production of foods." Journal of Dairy Technology, August 2008 "This work will serve well as an excellent course resource or reference as it has well-written explanations for those new to the field and detailed equations for those needing greater depth." CHOICE, September 2006Preface to the Second Edition XV Preface to the First Edition XVII List of Contributors XIX Content of Volume 1 1 Postharvest Handling and Preparation of Foods for Processing 1 Alistair S. Grandison 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Properties of Raw Food Materials and Their Susceptibility to Deterioration and Damage 2 1.3 Storage and Transportation of Raw Materials 9 1.4 Raw Material Cleaning 13 1.5 Sorting and Grading 20 1.6 Blanching 25 1.7 Sulfiting of Fruits and Vegetables 28 References 29 2 Thermal Processing 31 Michael J. Lewis and Soojin Jun 2.1 Introduction 31 2.2 Reaction Kinetics 35 2.3 Temperature Dependence 37 2.4 Heat Processing Methods 46 2.5 Special Problems with Viscous and Particulate Products 65 2.6 Ohmic Heating 67 2.7 Filling Procedures 72 2.8 Storage 72 References 73 3 Evaporation and Dehydration 77 James G. Brennan 3.1 Evaporation (Concentration, Condensing) 77 3.2 Dehydration (Drying) 91 References 126 4 Freezing 131 Jose Mauricio Pardo and Keshavan Niranjan 4.1 Introduction 131 4.2 Refrigeration Methods and Equipment 131 4.3 Low Temperature Production 135 4.4 Freezing Kinetics 145 4.5 Effects of Refrigeration on Food Quality 150 References 151 5 Irradiation 153 Alistair S. Grandison 5.1 Introduction 153 5.2 Principles of Irradiation 153 5.3 Equipment 160 5.4 Safety Aspects 165 5.5 Effects on the Properties of Food 165 5.6 Detection Methods for Irradiated Foods 167 5.7 Applications and Potential Applications 168 References 176 6 High Pressure Processing 179 Margaret F. Patterson, Dave A. Ledward, Craig Leadley, and Nigel Rogers 6.1 Introduction 179 6.2 Effect of High Pressure on Microorganisms 182 6.3 Ingredient Functionality 188 6.4 Enzyme Activity 189 6.5 Foaming and Emulsification 191 6.6 Gelation 193 6.7 Organoleptic Considerations 195 6.8 Equipment for HPP 196 6.9 Pressure Vessel Considerations 197 6.10 Current and Potential Applications of HPP for Foods 200 References 201 7 Emerging Technologies for Food Processing 205 Liliana Alamilla-Beltran, Jorge Welti-Chanes, Jose Jorge Chanona-Perez, Maria de Jesus Perea-Flores, and Gustavo F. Gutierrez-Lopez 7.1 Introduction 205 7.2 Pulsed Electric Field Processing 206 7.3 Ultrasound Power 215 7.4 Other Technologies 218 7.5 Conclusions 220 References 221 8 Packaging 225 James G. Brennan and Brian P. F. Day 8.1 Introduction 225 8.2 Factors Affecting the Choice of a Packaging Material and/or Container for a Particular Duty 226 8.3 Materials and Containers Used for Packaging Foods 233 8.4 Modified Atmosphere Packaging 258 8.5 Aseptic Packaging 261 8.6 Active Packaging 264 8.7 Intelligent Packaging 272 8.8 The Role of Nanotechnology in Food Packaging 276 References 276 Content of Volume 2 Separations in Food Processing: Part 1 281 James G. Brennan and Alistair S. Grandison 9.1 Introduction 281 9.2 Solid-Liquid Filtration 283 9.3 Centrifugation 294 9.4 Solid-Liquid Extraction (Leaching) 302 9.5 Distillation 311 9.6 Crystallization 320 References 327 10 Separations in Food Processing: Part 2 - Membrane Processing, Ion Exchange, and Electrodialysis 331 Michael J. Lewis and Alistair S. Grandison 10.1 Membrane Processes 331 10.2 Ion Exchange 348 10.3 Electrodialysis 357 References 360 11 Mixing, Emulsification, and Size Reduction 363 James G. Brennan 11.1 Mixing (Agitation, Blending) 363 11.2 Emulsification 374 11.3 Size Reduction (Crushing, Comminution, Grinding, Milling) of Solids 386 References 404 12 Baking 407 Stanley P. Cauvain 12.1 Introduction 407 12.2 The Key Characteristics of Existing Bakery Product Groups 408 12.3 Bread Making 411 12.4 The Manufacture of Cakes 422 12.5 Biscuit and Cookie Making 424 12.6 The Manufacture of Pastry Products 426 References 427 13 Extrusion 429 Paul Ainsworth 13.1 General Principles 429 13.2 Extrusion Equipment 432 13.3 Effects of Extrusion on the Properties of Foods 437 References 449 14 Food Deep-Fat Frying 455 Pedro Bouchon 14.1 General Principles 455 14.2 Effect of Deep-Fat Fried Food on Human Health 461 14.3 Oil Absorption in Deep-Fat Fried Food 465 14.4 Deep-Fat Frying Equipment 475 14.5 French Fries, Potato Chips, and Fabricated Chips Production 477 References 483 Further Reading 489 15 Safety in Food Processing 491 Carol A. Wallace 15.1 Introduction 491 15.2 Safe Design 491 15.3 Prerequisite Programs 495 15.4 HACCP, the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System 502 15.5 Ongoing Control of Food Safety in Processing 511 References 512 16 Traceability in Food Processing and Distribution 515 Christopher Knight 16.1 What Is Traceability? 515 16.2 Traceability and Legislation 516 16.3 Traceability and International/Private Standards 518 16.4 Traceability and Private Standards 519 16.5 Traceability in the Food Supply Chain 519 16.6 Product Identification 520 16.7 Management of Traceability Information 522 16.8 The Traceability System 523 16.9 Examples of Traceability Systems 525 References 530 17 The Hygienic Design of Food Processing Plant 533 Tony Hasting 17.1 Introduction 533 17.2 Engineering Factors Influencing Hygiene 534 17.3 Hygienic Equipment Design 536 17.4 Process Design 545 17.5 Process Operation and Control 551 17.6 Future Trends 556 17.7 Conclusions 557 References 557 18 Process Control in Food Processing 559 Keshavan Niranjan, Araya Ahromrit, and Ashok S. Khare 18.1 Introduction 559 18.2 Measurement of Process Parameters 559 18.3 Control Systems 560 18.4 Process Control in Modern Food Processing 566 18.5 Concluding Remarks 569 References 570 19 Environmental Aspects of Food Processing 571 Niharika Mishra, Ali Abd El-Aal Bakr, Keshavan Niranjan, and Gary Tucker 19.1 Introduction 571 19.2 Waste Characteristics 572 19.3 Wastewater Processing Technology 573 19.4 Resource Recovery from Food Processing Wastes 574 19.5 Environmental Impact of Packaging Wastes 575 19.6 Refrigerants 578 19.7 Energy Issues Related to the Environment 580 19.8 Life Cycle Assessment 582 19.9 Calculating Greenhouse Gas Emissions 582 References 589 Further Reading 591 20 Water and Waste Treatment 593 R. Andrew Wilbey 20.1 Introduction 593 20.2 Fresh Water 593 20.3 Wastewater 603 20.4 Sludge Disposal 618 20.5 Final Disposal of Wastewater 619 References 620 21 Process Realisation 623 Kevan G. Leach 21.1 Synopsis 623 21.2 Manufacturing Design 623 21.3 Process and Plant Design 624 21.4 Process Economics - Investment Criteria 629 21.5 Determining and Improving Process Performance 635 21.6 Variation 638 21.7 Brief Introduction to Lean and Waste 650 21.8 Tools for Continuous Improvement 654 References 665 22 Microscopy Techniques and Image Analysis for the Quantitative Evaluation of Food Microstructure 667 Maria de Jesus Perea-Flores, Angelica Gabriela Mendoza-Madrigal, Jose Jorge Chanona-Perez, Liliana Alamilla-Beltran, and Gustavo Fidel Gutierrez-Lopez 22.1 Introduction 667 22.2 Microstructure, Nanostructure, and Levels of Structure 669 22.3.1 Light Microscopy 673 22.4 Image Analysis 677 22.5 Applications of Microscopy and Image Analysis Techniques 679 22.6 Concluding Remarks 689 References 689 23 Nanotechnology in the Food Sector 693 Christopher J. Kirby 23.1 Introduction 693 23.2 The Driving Force for Nanotechnology Development 694 23.3 Manufacture of Nanosystems: General Principles 695 23.4 Nanotechnology and Food 696 23.5 Delivery Systems for Functional Food Ingredients 697 23.6 Application of Nanotechnology in Food Packaging and Other Contact Surfaces 712 23.7 Other Areas of Application 716 23.8 Potential Health and Safety Concerns Involved with Ingestion of Nanoparticulates 717 23.9 Regulatory Aspects 719 23.10 Recent Initiatives 721 References 722 24 Fermentation and the Use of Enzymes 727 Dimitris Charalampopoulos 24.1 Introduction 727 24.2 Fermentation Theory 727 24.3 Fermented Foods 735 24.4 Enzyme Technology 742 References 750 Index 753


Szczegóły: Food Processing Handbook - James G. Brennan

Tytuł: Food Processing Handbook
Autor: James G. Brennan
Producent: VCH
ISBN: 9783527324682
Rok produkcji: 2011
Ilość stron: 826
Oprawa: Twarda
Waga: 1.86 kg


Recenzje: Food Processing Handbook - James G. Brennan

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Food Processing Handbook

  • Producent: VCH
  • Oprawa: Twarda

The second edition of the Food Processing Handbook presents a comprehensive review of technologies, procedures and innovations in food processing, stressing topics vital to the food industry today and pinpointing the trends in future research and development. Focusing on the technology involved, this handbook describes the principles and the equipment used as well as the changes ? physical, chemical, microbiological and organoleptic ? that occur during food preservation. In so doing, the text covers in detail such techniques as post-harvest handling, thermal processing, evaporation and dehydration, freezing, irradiation, high-pressure processing, emerging technologies and packaging. Separation and conversion operations widely used in the food industry are also covered as are the processes of baking, extrusion and frying. In addition, it addresses current concerns about the safety of processed foods (including HACCP systems, traceability and hygienic design of plant) and control of food processes, as well as the impact of processing on the environment, water and waste treatment, lean manufacturing and the roles of nanotechnology and fermentation in food processing. This two-volume set is a must-have for scientists and engineers involved in food manufacture, research and development in both industry and academia, as well as students of food-related topics at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. From Reviews on the First Edition: "This work should become a standard text for students of food technology, and is worthy of a place on the bookshelf of anybody involved in the production of foods." Journal of Dairy Technology, August 2008 "This work will serve well as an excellent course resource or reference as it has well-written explanations for those new to the field and detailed equations for those needing greater depth." CHOICE, September 2006Preface to the Second Edition XV Preface to the First Edition XVII List of Contributors XIX Content of Volume 1 1 Postharvest Handling and Preparation of Foods for Processing 1 Alistair S. Grandison 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Properties of Raw Food Materials and Their Susceptibility to Deterioration and Damage 2 1.3 Storage and Transportation of Raw Materials 9 1.4 Raw Material Cleaning 13 1.5 Sorting and Grading 20 1.6 Blanching 25 1.7 Sulfiting of Fruits and Vegetables 28 References 29 2 Thermal Processing 31 Michael J. Lewis and Soojin Jun 2.1 Introduction 31 2.2 Reaction Kinetics 35 2.3 Temperature Dependence 37 2.4 Heat Processing Methods 46 2.5 Special Problems with Viscous and Particulate Products 65 2.6 Ohmic Heating 67 2.7 Filling Procedures 72 2.8 Storage 72 References 73 3 Evaporation and Dehydration 77 James G. Brennan 3.1 Evaporation (Concentration, Condensing) 77 3.2 Dehydration (Drying) 91 References 126 4 Freezing 131 Jose Mauricio Pardo and Keshavan Niranjan 4.1 Introduction 131 4.2 Refrigeration Methods and Equipment 131 4.3 Low Temperature Production 135 4.4 Freezing Kinetics 145 4.5 Effects of Refrigeration on Food Quality 150 References 151 5 Irradiation 153 Alistair S. Grandison 5.1 Introduction 153 5.2 Principles of Irradiation 153 5.3 Equipment 160 5.4 Safety Aspects 165 5.5 Effects on the Properties of Food 165 5.6 Detection Methods for Irradiated Foods 167 5.7 Applications and Potential Applications 168 References 176 6 High Pressure Processing 179 Margaret F. Patterson, Dave A. Ledward, Craig Leadley, and Nigel Rogers 6.1 Introduction 179 6.2 Effect of High Pressure on Microorganisms 182 6.3 Ingredient Functionality 188 6.4 Enzyme Activity 189 6.5 Foaming and Emulsification 191 6.6 Gelation 193 6.7 Organoleptic Considerations 195 6.8 Equipment for HPP 196 6.9 Pressure Vessel Considerations 197 6.10 Current and Potential Applications of HPP for Foods 200 References 201 7 Emerging Technologies for Food Processing 205 Liliana Alamilla-Beltran, Jorge Welti-Chanes, Jose Jorge Chanona-Perez, Maria de Jesus Perea-Flores, and Gustavo F. Gutierrez-Lopez 7.1 Introduction 205 7.2 Pulsed Electric Field Processing 206 7.3 Ultrasound Power 215 7.4 Other Technologies 218 7.5 Conclusions 220 References 221 8 Packaging 225 James G. Brennan and Brian P. F. Day 8.1 Introduction 225 8.2 Factors Affecting the Choice of a Packaging Material and/or Container for a Particular Duty 226 8.3 Materials and Containers Used for Packaging Foods 233 8.4 Modified Atmosphere Packaging 258 8.5 Aseptic Packaging 261 8.6 Active Packaging 264 8.7 Intelligent Packaging 272 8.8 The Role of Nanotechnology in Food Packaging 276 References 276 Content of Volume 2 Separations in Food Processing: Part 1 281 James G. Brennan and Alistair S. Grandison 9.1 Introduction 281 9.2 Solid-Liquid Filtration 283 9.3 Centrifugation 294 9.4 Solid-Liquid Extraction (Leaching) 302 9.5 Distillation 311 9.6 Crystallization 320 References 327 10 Separations in Food Processing: Part 2 - Membrane Processing, Ion Exchange, and Electrodialysis 331 Michael J. Lewis and Alistair S. Grandison 10.1 Membrane Processes 331 10.2 Ion Exchange 348 10.3 Electrodialysis 357 References 360 11 Mixing, Emulsification, and Size Reduction 363 James G. Brennan 11.1 Mixing (Agitation, Blending) 363 11.2 Emulsification 374 11.3 Size Reduction (Crushing, Comminution, Grinding, Milling) of Solids 386 References 404 12 Baking 407 Stanley P. Cauvain 12.1 Introduction 407 12.2 The Key Characteristics of Existing Bakery Product Groups 408 12.3 Bread Making 411 12.4 The Manufacture of Cakes 422 12.5 Biscuit and Cookie Making 424 12.6 The Manufacture of Pastry Products 426 References 427 13 Extrusion 429 Paul Ainsworth 13.1 General Principles 429 13.2 Extrusion Equipment 432 13.3 Effects of Extrusion on the Properties of Foods 437 References 449 14 Food Deep-Fat Frying 455 Pedro Bouchon 14.1 General Principles 455 14.2 Effect of Deep-Fat Fried Food on Human Health 461 14.3 Oil Absorption in Deep-Fat Fried Food 465 14.4 Deep-Fat Frying Equipment 475 14.5 French Fries, Potato Chips, and Fabricated Chips Production 477 References 483 Further Reading 489 15 Safety in Food Processing 491 Carol A. Wallace 15.1 Introduction 491 15.2 Safe Design 491 15.3 Prerequisite Programs 495 15.4 HACCP, the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System 502 15.5 Ongoing Control of Food Safety in Processing 511 References 512 16 Traceability in Food Processing and Distribution 515 Christopher Knight 16.1 What Is Traceability? 515 16.2 Traceability and Legislation 516 16.3 Traceability and International/Private Standards 518 16.4 Traceability and Private Standards 519 16.5 Traceability in the Food Supply Chain 519 16.6 Product Identification 520 16.7 Management of Traceability Information 522 16.8 The Traceability System 523 16.9 Examples of Traceability Systems 525 References 530 17 The Hygienic Design of Food Processing Plant 533 Tony Hasting 17.1 Introduction 533 17.2 Engineering Factors Influencing Hygiene 534 17.3 Hygienic Equipment Design 536 17.4 Process Design 545 17.5 Process Operation and Control 551 17.6 Future Trends 556 17.7 Conclusions 557 References 557 18 Process Control in Food Processing 559 Keshavan Niranjan, Araya Ahromrit, and Ashok S. Khare 18.1 Introduction 559 18.2 Measurement of Process Parameters 559 18.3 Control Systems 560 18.4 Process Control in Modern Food Processing 566 18.5 Concluding Remarks 569 References 570 19 Environmental Aspects of Food Processing 571 Niharika Mishra, Ali Abd El-Aal Bakr, Keshavan Niranjan, and Gary Tucker 19.1 Introduction 571 19.2 Waste Characteristics 572 19.3 Wastewater Processing Technology 573 19.4 Resource Recovery from Food Processing Wastes 574 19.5 Environmental Impact of Packaging Wastes 575 19.6 Refrigerants 578 19.7 Energy Issues Related to the Environment 580 19.8 Life Cycle Assessment 582 19.9 Calculating Greenhouse Gas Emissions 582 References 589 Further Reading 591 20 Water and Waste Treatment 593 R. Andrew Wilbey 20.1 Introduction 593 20.2 Fresh Water 593 20.3 Wastewater 603 20.4 Sludge Disposal 618 20.5 Final Disposal of Wastewater 619 References 620 21 Process Realisation 623 Kevan G. Leach 21.1 Synopsis 623 21.2 Manufacturing Design 623 21.3 Process and Plant Design 624 21.4 Process Economics - Investment Criteria 629 21.5 Determining and Improving Process Performance 635 21.6 Variation 638 21.7 Brief Introduction to Lean and Waste 650 21.8 Tools for Continuous Improvement 654 References 665 22 Microscopy Techniques and Image Analysis for the Quantitative Evaluation of Food Microstructure 667 Maria de Jesus Perea-Flores, Angelica Gabriela Mendoza-Madrigal, Jose Jorge Chanona-Perez, Liliana Alamilla-Beltran, and Gustavo Fidel Gutierrez-Lopez 22.1 Introduction 667 22.2 Microstructure, Nanostructure, and Levels of Structure 669 22.3.1 Light Microscopy 673 22.4 Image Analysis 677 22.5 Applications of Microscopy and Image Analysis Techniques 679 22.6 Concluding Remarks 689 References 689 23 Nanotechnology in the Food Sector 693 Christopher J. Kirby 23.1 Introduction 693 23.2 The Driving Force for Nanotechnology Development 694 23.3 Manufacture of Nanosystems: General Principles 695 23.4 Nanotechnology and Food 696 23.5 Delivery Systems for Functional Food Ingredients 697 23.6 Application of Nanotechnology in Food Packaging and Other Contact Surfaces 712 23.7 Other Areas of Application 716 23.8 Potential Health and Safety Concerns Involved with Ingestion of Nanoparticulates 717 23.9 Regulatory Aspects 719 23.10 Recent Initiatives 721 References 722 24 Fermentation and the Use of Enzymes 727 Dimitris Charalampopoulos 24.1 Introduction 727 24.2 Fermentation Theory 727 24.3 Fermented Foods 735 24.4 Enzyme Technology 742 References 750 Index 753

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Szczegóły: Food Processing Handbook - James G. Brennan

Tytuł: Food Processing Handbook
Autor: James G. Brennan
Producent: VCH
ISBN: 9783527324682
Rok produkcji: 2011
Ilość stron: 826
Oprawa: Twarda
Waga: 1.86 kg


Recenzje: Food Processing Handbook - James G. Brennan

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