Principles of Wood Science and Technology

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Opis: Principles of Wood Science and Technology - Wilfred A. Cote, Franz F. P. Kollmann

1. The Structure of Wood and the Wood Cell Wall.- 1.0 Introduction.- 1.1 Gross Structure of Wood.- 1.1.1 Cellular Composition.- 1.1.2 Wood Rays.- 1.1.3 Planes of Wood.- 1.1.4 Sapwood and Heartwood.- 1.1.5 Growth Increments.- 1.1.6 Axial Parenchyma.- 1.1.7 Intercellular Canals.- 1.1.8 Other Gross Features.- 1.2 Microscopic Structure of Wood.- 1.2.1 Major Cell Types.- 1.2.2 Cell Sorting and Arrangement.- 1.2.3 Cell Inclusions.- 1.2.3.1 Tyloses.- 1.2.3.2 Crystals.- 1.2.3.3 Oil cells.- 1.2.3.4 Gums and Resins.- 1.3 Organization of the Cell Wall.- 1.3.1 The Microfibril.- 1.3.2 Generalized Structure and Terminology.- 1.3.3 Microfibrillar Orientation.- 1.3.4 Cell Wall Sculpturing.- 1.3.4.1 Pit Structure.- 1.3.4.2 Helical Thickenings.- 1.3.4.3 Wart Structure.- 1.3.4.4 Dentate Ray Tracheid Thickenings.- 1.4 Reaction Wood Anatomy and Ultrastructure.- 1.4.1 Compression Wood.- 1.4.2 Tension Wood.- Literature Cited.- 2. Chemical Composition of Wood.- 2.0 Introduction.- 2.1 Chemical Constituents of Wood and their Determination.- 2.2 Characteristics of the Principal Wood Constituents.- 2.2.1 Cellulose.- 2.2.1.1 Isolation from Wood.- 2.2.1.2 Structure.- 2.2.1.3 Properties.- 2.2.2 Hemicellulose.- 2.2.2.1 Hemicelluloses of Hardwoods.- 2.2.2.2 Hemicelluloses of Softwoods.- 2.2.3 Other Wood Polysaccharides.- 2.2.4 Lignin.- 2.2.4.1 Isolation from Wood.- 2.2.4.2 Structure.- 2.2.4.3 Properties.- 2.3 Wood Extractives.- 2.4 Distribution of Chemical Constituents in Wood.- Literature Cited.- 3. Defects and Abnormalities of Wood.- 3.0 Introduction.- 3.1 Natural Defects.- 3.1.1 Knots.- 3.1.2 Eeaction Wood.- 3.1.2.1 Compression Wood.- 3.1.2.2 Tension Wood.- 3.1.3 Cross Grain.- 3.1.4 Variations in Log Form.- 3.1.5 Shake.- 3.1.6 Miscellaneous Natural Defects.- 3.2 Defects due to Processing.- 3.2.1 Manufacturing Defects.- 3.2.2 Seasoning Defects.- 3.2.2.1 Checks.- 3.2.2.2 Warp.- 3.2.2.3 Casehardening.- 3.2.2.4 Collapse.- 3.2.2.5 Honeycomb.- 3.2.2.6 Washboarding.- 3.2.2.7 Miscellaneous Seasoning Defects.- 3.2.3 Raised Grain.- 3.2.4 Loosened Grain.- Literature Cited.- 4. Biological Deterioration of Wood.- 4.0 Introduction.- 4.1 Fungi causing Wood Deterioration.- 4.1.1 Characteristics of Wood-destroying Fungi.- 4.1.1.1 Comparison of Brown Rot and White Rot.- 4.1.1.2 Soft Rot.- 4.1.2 Characteristics of Wood-staining Fungi.- 4.1.3 Physiological Requirements of Wood-destroying and Wood-inhabiting Fungi.- 4.1.3.1 Temperature.- 4.1.3.2 Oxygen.- 4.1.3.3 Moisture.- 4.1.3.4 Nutrients.- 4.1.3.5 Hydrogen Ion Concentration.- 4.1.3.6 Natural Durability.- 4.1.3.7 Relationship of Wood Preservation to Physiological Requirements.- 4.1.4 Mechanism of Wood Decay.- 4.1.5 Influence of Decay on Mechanical Properties.- 4.2 Wood-boring Insects.- 4.2.1 Termites.- 4.2.1.1 Characteristics.- 4.2.1.2 Control.- 4.2.2 Powder-post Beetles.- 4.2.2.1 Lyctidae.- 4.2.2.2 Wood-feeding Anobiidae.- 4.2.2.3 Cerambycidae. Long-horned Beetles or Round-headed Borers.- 4.2.2.4 Bostriehidae. Auger or Shot-hole Borers.- 4.2.2.5 Control Measures.- 4.2.3 Carpenter Ants.- 4.2.4 Carpenter Bees. Order Hymenoptera.- 4.2.5 Horntails. (Siricidae).- 4.3 Marine Borers.- 4.3.1 Molluscan Borers.- 4.3.2 Crustacean Borers.- 4.3.3 Protection against Marine Wood Borers.- Literature Cited.- 5. Wood Preservation.- 5.0 Introduction.- 5.1 General Considerations.- 5.1.1 Effect of Structure on Treatment.- 5.1.2 Timber Preparation.- 5.2 Wood Preservation Processes.- 5.2.1 Non-pressure Processes.- 5.2.1.1 Brushing or Spraying.- 5.2.1.2 Dipping.- 5.2.1.3 Steeping and Cold Soaking.- 5.2.1.4 Hot-and-Cold Bath.- 5.2.1.5 Diffusion Method.- 5.2.2 Pressure Processes.- 5.2.2.1 Pull-cell Processes.- 5.2.2.2 Empty-cell Processes.- 5.2.3 Miscellaneous Processes.- 5.3 Wood Preservatives.- 5.3.1 Characteristics of Preservatives.- 5.3.2 Preservative Materials Toxic to Insects, Fungi and Marine Borers.- 5.4 Fire Retardant Treatment.- 5.4.1 General Remarks about the Combustibility of Wood.- 5.4.2 Developed Heat and Strength.- 5.4.3 Course of Temperature and Chemical Phenomena in Combustion of Wood.- 5.4.4 Effects and Properties of Fire Retardants.- 5.4.4.1 Water Soluble Salts.- 5.4.4.2 Alkali Silicates.- 5.4.4.3 Foam Forming Organic Compounds.- 5.4.4.4 Other Fire Retardants.- 5.4.5 Testing of Fire Retardants.- 5.5 Dimensional Stabilization.- 5.5.1 Theory.- 5.5.2 Methods.- Literature Cited.- 6. Physics of Wood.- 6.1 Density and Specific Gravity.- 6.1.1 Density, Porosity, Specific Gravity of Wood Substance and of Wood Constituents.- 6.1.2 Effect of Moisture Content in Wood on its Density.- 6.1.3 Density of Green Wood.- 6.1.4 Variations in Density.- 6.1.5 Density of Springwood and Summerwood, Correlation with Width of Annual Rings.- 6.1.6 Content of Solid Matter in Piles of Wood and Wood Residues.- 6.2 Wood-Liquid Relations.- 6.2.1 Moisture Content, Definition.- 6.2.2 Determination of Moisture Content.- 6.2.2.1 Oven-drying Method.- 6.2.2.2 Distillation Method.- 6.2.2.3 Titration According to K. Fischer (1935); Eberius (1952, 1958).- 6.2.2.4 Hygrometric Methods.- 6.2.2.5 Electrical Moisture Meters.- 6.2.3 Sorption and Equilibrium Moisture Content.- 6.2.4 Recommended Moisture Content for Wood in Service.- 6.2.5 Fiber Saturation Point, Maximum Moisture Content of Wood.- 6.2.6 Thermodynamics of Sorption.- 6.2.7 Shrinkage and Swelling.- 6.2.7.1 Maximum Volumetric Shrinkage and Swelling, Influence of Drying Temperature.- 6.2.7.2 Anisotropy of Shrinkage and Swelling.- 6.2.7.3 Super-position of the Components of Swelling, Restrained Swelling.- 6.2.7.4 Swelling in Aqueous Solutions and Organic Liquids.- 6.2.7.5 Dimensional Stabilization of Wood.- 6.3 Capillary Movement and Diffusion in Wood.- 6.3.0 General Considerations on the Movement of Water in Wood Above and Below Fiber Saturation Point.- 6.3.1 Capillary Movement of Water in Wood.- 6.3.2 Diffusion of Water in Wood.- 6.3.3 Drying of Wood as a Diffusion Problem.- 6.3.3.1 Analogy to Fourier's Analysis for Heat Conduction.- 6.3.3.2 Approximated Calculation of the Drying Time.- 6.3.3.3 Stamm's Theoretical Drying Diffusion Coefficients.- 6.4 Physical Aspects of Wood Impregnation.- 6.4.1 Nonpressure Processes.- 6.4.2 Pressure Processes.- 6.4.2.0 General Considerations.- 6.4.2.1 Theory of Pressure Treatment of Wood.- 6.5 Thermal Properties of Wood.- 6.5.1 Thermal Expansion.- 6.5.2 Specific Heat of Wood.- 6.5.3 Thermal Conductivity of Wood.- 6.5.3.0 General Considerations.- 6.5.3.1 Influences of Structure and Density, Moisture Content and Temperature on the Thermal Conductivity of Wood.- 6.5.4 Diffusivity of Wood, Change of Temperature in Heated Wood.- 6.5.5 Radiation of Heat with Respect to Wood.- 6.6 Electrical Properties of Wood.- 6.6.1 Direct-current Properties: Electrical Resistance and Electrical Conductivity.- 6.6.2 Alternating-Current Properties of Wood.- 6.6.2.1 Resistivity.- 6.6.2.2 Dielectric Constant.- 6.6.2.3 Power Factor.- 6.6.3 Magnetic Properties of Wood and Wood Constituents.- 6.6.4 Piezoelectric Properties of Wood.- 6.7 Acoustical Properties of Wood.- 6.7.0 General Considerations.- 6.7.1 Sound Transmission in Wood.- 6.7.1.1 Sound Velocity.- 6.7.1.2 Sound Wave Resistance, Damping of Sound Radiation and Internal Friction.- 6.7.2 Acoustics of Buildings.- 6.7.2.1 Sound Energy.- 6.7.2.2 Sound Transmission Loss for Various Types of Construction.- 6.7.2.3 Sound Absorption.- Literature Cited.- 7. Mechanics and Rheology of Wood.- 7.1 Elasticity, Plasticity, and Creep.- 7.1.1 Hooke's Law, Modulus of Elasticity.- 7.1.2 Rhombic Symmetry of Wood, Systems of Elastic Constants.- 7.1.3 Poisson's Ratios.- 7.1.4 Compressibility (Bulk Modulus).- 7.1.5 Determination of Elastic Constants.- 7.1.5.1 Determination by Static Tests.- 7.1.5.2 Determination by Dynamic Tests.- 7.1.6 Influences Affecting the Elastic Properties of Wood.- 7.1.6.1 Grain Angle.- 7.1.6.2 Density.- 7.1.6.3 Moisture Content.- 7.1.6.4 Temperature.- 7.1.6.5 Knots and Notches.- 7.1.7 Plasticity and Creep.- 7.1.7.1 Stress-strain Behavior.- 7.1.7.2 Creep and Creep Recovery.- 7.1.7.3 Rheological Models and Mathematical Considerations.- 7.2 Tensile Strength.- 7.2.1 Tensile Strength of Cellulose Molecules, of Single Wood Fibers, and Breaking Length.- 7.2.2 Determination of Tensile Strength Along the Grain.- 7.2.3 Factors Affecting the Tensile Strength Along the Grain.- 7.2.3.1 Grain Angle.- 7.2.3.2 Density.- 7.2.3.3 Moisture Content.- 7.2.3.4 Temperature.- 7.2.3.5 Knots and Notches.- 7.2.4 Determination of Tensile Strength Perpendicular to the Grain, Cleavage.- 7.2.5 Fatigue in Tension Parallel to the Grain.- 7.3 Maximum Crushing Strength and Stresses in Wood Columns.- 7.3.0 General Considerations.- 7.3.1 Testing in Compression Parallel to Grain.- 7.3.2 Testing in Compression Perpendicular to Grain.- 7.3.3 Influences Affecting the Crushing Strength.- 7.3.3.1 Grain Angle.- 7.3.3.2 Density.- 7.3.3.3 Moisture Content.- 7.3.3.4 Temperature.- 7.3.3.5 Knots and Notches.- 7.3.3.6 Chemical Constituents.- 7.3.4 Fatigue in Compression Parallel to the Grain.- 7.3.5 Stresses in Solid Wood Columns.- 7.4 Bending Strength (Modulus of Rupture).- 7.4.0 General Considerations.- 7.4.1 Testing of Small Wooden Beams under Static Center Loading.- 7.4.2 Influences Affecting the Bending Strength (Modulus of Rupture).- 7.4.2.1 Grain Angle.- 7.4.2.2 Density.- 7.4.2.3 Moisture content.- 7.4.2.4 Temperature.- 7.4.2.5 Shape and Size of Beams, Knots and Notches.- 7.4.2.6 Fatigue in Bending.- 7.5 Shock Resistance or Toughness.- 7.5.0 General Considerations.- 7.5.1 Determination of Shock Resistance.- 7.5.1.1 Single Blow Impact Test.- 7.5.1.2 The Hatt-Turner Test (Successive Blows Impact Test).- 7.5.2. Comparison of Impact Test Results.- 7.5.3 Influences Affecting the Shock Resistance.- 7.5.3.1 Shape and Size of Beams, Notches (Izod-test).- 7.5.3.2 Grain Angle.- 7.5.3.3 Density.- 7.5.3.4 Moisture Content.- 7.5.3.5 Temperature.- 7.5.3.6 Anatomical Properties, Chemical Constituents, Decay.- 7.5.3.7 Types and Phenomena of Failures in Impact Bending.- 7.6 Torsional Properties and Shear Strength.- 7.6.0 General Considerations.- 7.6.1 Determination of Torsional Strength.- 7.6.2 Determination of Shearing Strength Parallel to Grain.- 7.7 Hardness and Abrasion Resistance.- 7.7.0 General Considerations.- 7.7.1 Hardness Tests.- 7.7.2 Factors Influencing the Hardness of Wood.- 7.7.3 Abrasion Resistance.- 7.7.4 Some Aspects of Nondestructive Testing of Wood and Timber Grading.- Literature Cited.- 8. Steaming and Seasoning of Wood.- 8.0 General Considerations.- 8.1 Air-drying.- 8.1.1 Moisture Content of Green Wood.- 8.1.2 Course of Air-drying.- 8.1.3 Yard Seasoning.- 8.1.3.1 Lumberyard Layout.- 8.1.3.2 Seasoning Periods.- 8.1.4 Accelerated Air-drying, Predrying.- 8.1.4.1 Fan Air-drying.- 8.1.4.2 Air-drying by Means of Swings or Centrifuges.- 8.1.4.3 Air-drying by Solar Heat.- 8.1.4.4 Predriers.- 8.2 Steaming.- 8.2.1 Reasons for Steaming.- 8.2.2 Methods of Steaming and Heat Consumption.- 8.2.3 Effects of Steaming on Wood.- 8.3 Kiln Drying.- 8.3.0 General Considerations.- 8.3.1 Fundamental Drying Factors.- 8.3.2 Defects in Wood due to Kiln Drying.- 8.3.2.0 General Considerations.- 8.3.2.1 Staining.- 8.3.2.2 Deformations (Warping, Twisting, Cupping).- 8.3.2.3 Casehardening.- 8.3.2.4 Collapse.- 8.3.3 Types of Kilns and Instruments.- 8.4 Special Seasoning Methods..- 8.4.1 High Temperature Drying.- 8.4.2 Drying by Boiling in Oily Liquids.- 8.4.3 Solvent Seasoning.- 8.4.4 Vapor Drying.- 8.4.5 Vacuum Drying.- 8.4.6 Chemical Seasoning.- 8.4.7 Drying by Direct Application of Electricity.- 8.4.7.1 Drying by Joule's Heat.- 8.4.7.2 High-frequency Dielectric Drying.- 8.4.8 Drying by Infrared Radiation.- Literature Cited.- 9. Wood Machining.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Technology of Sawing.- 9.2.1 Sash Gang Sawing.- 9.2.1.1 Cutting Velocity..- 9.2.1.2 Chip Thickness and Average Cutting Resistance.- 9.2.1.3 Consumption of Energy.- 9.2.1.4 Effects of Tooth Geometry, Tooth Height and Pitch.- 9.2.1.5 Influence of Setting.- 9.2.1.6 Strain and Stresses in Gang Saw Blades; Thermal Effects.- 9.2.1.7 Surface Quality.- 9.2.1.8 Yield.- 9.2.2 Band Sawing.- 9.2.2.1 General Considerations, Saw Blade Dimensions.- 9.2.2.2 Cutting Velocity and Cutting Resistance.- 9.2.2.3 Influence of Feed Speed.- 9.2.2.4 Effect of Depth of Timber Cut and of Grain Orientation.- 9.2.2.5 Effect of Tooth Geometry and Pitch.- 9.2.2.6 Band Tension and Stability.- 9.2.3 Circular Sawing.- 9.2.3.1 Introduction, Saw Blade Geometry, Kinematics.- 9.2.3.2 Effect of Cutting Velocity on the Cutting Resistance.- 9.2.3.3 Cutting Force and Cutting Power, Effect of Feed Rate or Feed per Tooth.- 9.2.3.4 Specific Cutting Energy.- 9.2.3.5 Effect of Depth of Timber Cut and of Grain Orientation.- 9.2.3.6 Effect of Blade Diameter and Blade Thickness.- 9.2.3.7 Effect of Tooth Geometry and Pitch.- 9.2.3.8 Chip Formation.- 9.2.3.9 Thermal Effects, Stresses, and Stability of Circular Saw Blades.- 9.2.3.10 Special Types of Circular Saw Blades.- 9.2.4 Chain sawing.- 9.2.4.1 Introduction.- 9.2.4.2 Machine Types.- 9.2.4.3 Chip Formation, Power Requirements.- 9.3 Proposed Methods of Chipless Wood-Cutting.- 9.3.1 Peeling and Slicing.- 9.3.2 Cutting with Vibration Cutters.- 9.3.3 Cutting with High-energy Jets.- 9.3.4 Cutting with the Laser.- 9.4 Technology of Jointing, Planing, Moulding and Shaping.- 9.4.1 General Considerations.- 9.4.2 Geometry of Cutterhead-knives.- 9.4.3 Cutting Velocity and Cutting Force.- 9.4.3.1 Effect of Cutting Velocity on the Cutting Force.- 9.4.3.2 Effect of Cutting-Circle Diameter, Feed Speed, and Number of Knives.- 9.4.3.3 Effect of Grain Orientation, Inclination of the Cutting Edge, and Chip Thicknes.- 9.4.3.4 Effect of Wood Species, Moisture Content and Temperature.- 9.4.3.5 Effect of Cutter Materials.- 9.4.3.6 Effect of Cutting Depth.- 9.4.3.7 The Blunting of Cutter Head Knives.- 9.4.4. Formation of Chips through Knife-cutting.- 9.4.4.1 Influence of Wood Moisture Content on Chip Formation.- 9.4.4.2 Influence of Knife Geometry on Chip Formation.- 9.4.4.3 Other Cutting Factors and their Effect on Chip Formation and Quality.- 9.5 Sanding.- 9.5.1 General Considerations.- 9.5.2 Abrasives.- 9.5.3 Technology of Sanding Process.- 9.6 Turning.- 9.6.1 General Considerations.- 9.6.2 Effects on the Turning of Wood.- 9.6.3 Quality of Turned Surfaces.- 9.7 Tenoning, Mortising and Boring.- 9.8 Bending of Solid Wood.- 9.8.1 General Considerations.- 9.8.2 Strains and Stresses in Wood Bending.- 9.8.3 Pretreatment of the Wood Prior to Bending.- 9.8.4 Methods and Machines for Wood Bending.- 9.8.5 Properties of Bent Wood.- 9.8.5.1 Sorption Properties.- 9.8.5.2 Mechanical Properties.- 9.9 Laminated Bending.- Literature Cited.- Author Index.


Szczegóły: Principles of Wood Science and Technology - Wilfred A. Cote, Franz F. P. Kollmann

Tytuł: Principles of Wood Science and Technology
Autor: Wilfred A. Cote, Franz F. P. Kollmann
Producent: Springer Verlag
ISBN: 9783642879302
Rok produkcji: 2012
Ilość stron: 608
Oprawa: Miękka
Waga: 1 kg


Recenzje: Principles of Wood Science and Technology - Wilfred A. Cote, Franz F. P. Kollmann

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Principles of Wood Science and Technology

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1. The Structure of Wood and the Wood Cell Wall.- 1.0 Introduction.- 1.1 Gross Structure of Wood.- 1.1.1 Cellular Composition.- 1.1.2 Wood Rays.- 1.1.3 Planes of Wood.- 1.1.4 Sapwood and Heartwood.- 1.1.5 Growth Increments.- 1.1.6 Axial Parenchyma.- 1.1.7 Intercellular Canals.- 1.1.8 Other Gross Features.- 1.2 Microscopic Structure of Wood.- 1.2.1 Major Cell Types.- 1.2.2 Cell Sorting and Arrangement.- 1.2.3 Cell Inclusions.- 1.2.3.1 Tyloses.- 1.2.3.2 Crystals.- 1.2.3.3 Oil cells.- 1.2.3.4 Gums and Resins.- 1.3 Organization of the Cell Wall.- 1.3.1 The Microfibril.- 1.3.2 Generalized Structure and Terminology.- 1.3.3 Microfibrillar Orientation.- 1.3.4 Cell Wall Sculpturing.- 1.3.4.1 Pit Structure.- 1.3.4.2 Helical Thickenings.- 1.3.4.3 Wart Structure.- 1.3.4.4 Dentate Ray Tracheid Thickenings.- 1.4 Reaction Wood Anatomy and Ultrastructure.- 1.4.1 Compression Wood.- 1.4.2 Tension Wood.- Literature Cited.- 2. Chemical Composition of Wood.- 2.0 Introduction.- 2.1 Chemical Constituents of Wood and their Determination.- 2.2 Characteristics of the Principal Wood Constituents.- 2.2.1 Cellulose.- 2.2.1.1 Isolation from Wood.- 2.2.1.2 Structure.- 2.2.1.3 Properties.- 2.2.2 Hemicellulose.- 2.2.2.1 Hemicelluloses of Hardwoods.- 2.2.2.2 Hemicelluloses of Softwoods.- 2.2.3 Other Wood Polysaccharides.- 2.2.4 Lignin.- 2.2.4.1 Isolation from Wood.- 2.2.4.2 Structure.- 2.2.4.3 Properties.- 2.3 Wood Extractives.- 2.4 Distribution of Chemical Constituents in Wood.- Literature Cited.- 3. Defects and Abnormalities of Wood.- 3.0 Introduction.- 3.1 Natural Defects.- 3.1.1 Knots.- 3.1.2 Eeaction Wood.- 3.1.2.1 Compression Wood.- 3.1.2.2 Tension Wood.- 3.1.3 Cross Grain.- 3.1.4 Variations in Log Form.- 3.1.5 Shake.- 3.1.6 Miscellaneous Natural Defects.- 3.2 Defects due to Processing.- 3.2.1 Manufacturing Defects.- 3.2.2 Seasoning Defects.- 3.2.2.1 Checks.- 3.2.2.2 Warp.- 3.2.2.3 Casehardening.- 3.2.2.4 Collapse.- 3.2.2.5 Honeycomb.- 3.2.2.6 Washboarding.- 3.2.2.7 Miscellaneous Seasoning Defects.- 3.2.3 Raised Grain.- 3.2.4 Loosened Grain.- Literature Cited.- 4. Biological Deterioration of Wood.- 4.0 Introduction.- 4.1 Fungi causing Wood Deterioration.- 4.1.1 Characteristics of Wood-destroying Fungi.- 4.1.1.1 Comparison of Brown Rot and White Rot.- 4.1.1.2 Soft Rot.- 4.1.2 Characteristics of Wood-staining Fungi.- 4.1.3 Physiological Requirements of Wood-destroying and Wood-inhabiting Fungi.- 4.1.3.1 Temperature.- 4.1.3.2 Oxygen.- 4.1.3.3 Moisture.- 4.1.3.4 Nutrients.- 4.1.3.5 Hydrogen Ion Concentration.- 4.1.3.6 Natural Durability.- 4.1.3.7 Relationship of Wood Preservation to Physiological Requirements.- 4.1.4 Mechanism of Wood Decay.- 4.1.5 Influence of Decay on Mechanical Properties.- 4.2 Wood-boring Insects.- 4.2.1 Termites.- 4.2.1.1 Characteristics.- 4.2.1.2 Control.- 4.2.2 Powder-post Beetles.- 4.2.2.1 Lyctidae.- 4.2.2.2 Wood-feeding Anobiidae.- 4.2.2.3 Cerambycidae. Long-horned Beetles or Round-headed Borers.- 4.2.2.4 Bostriehidae. Auger or Shot-hole Borers.- 4.2.2.5 Control Measures.- 4.2.3 Carpenter Ants.- 4.2.4 Carpenter Bees. Order Hymenoptera.- 4.2.5 Horntails. (Siricidae).- 4.3 Marine Borers.- 4.3.1 Molluscan Borers.- 4.3.2 Crustacean Borers.- 4.3.3 Protection against Marine Wood Borers.- Literature Cited.- 5. Wood Preservation.- 5.0 Introduction.- 5.1 General Considerations.- 5.1.1 Effect of Structure on Treatment.- 5.1.2 Timber Preparation.- 5.2 Wood Preservation Processes.- 5.2.1 Non-pressure Processes.- 5.2.1.1 Brushing or Spraying.- 5.2.1.2 Dipping.- 5.2.1.3 Steeping and Cold Soaking.- 5.2.1.4 Hot-and-Cold Bath.- 5.2.1.5 Diffusion Method.- 5.2.2 Pressure Processes.- 5.2.2.1 Pull-cell Processes.- 5.2.2.2 Empty-cell Processes.- 5.2.3 Miscellaneous Processes.- 5.3 Wood Preservatives.- 5.3.1 Characteristics of Preservatives.- 5.3.2 Preservative Materials Toxic to Insects, Fungi and Marine Borers.- 5.4 Fire Retardant Treatment.- 5.4.1 General Remarks about the Combustibility of Wood.- 5.4.2 Developed Heat and Strength.- 5.4.3 Course of Temperature and Chemical Phenomena in Combustion of Wood.- 5.4.4 Effects and Properties of Fire Retardants.- 5.4.4.1 Water Soluble Salts.- 5.4.4.2 Alkali Silicates.- 5.4.4.3 Foam Forming Organic Compounds.- 5.4.4.4 Other Fire Retardants.- 5.4.5 Testing of Fire Retardants.- 5.5 Dimensional Stabilization.- 5.5.1 Theory.- 5.5.2 Methods.- Literature Cited.- 6. Physics of Wood.- 6.1 Density and Specific Gravity.- 6.1.1 Density, Porosity, Specific Gravity of Wood Substance and of Wood Constituents.- 6.1.2 Effect of Moisture Content in Wood on its Density.- 6.1.3 Density of Green Wood.- 6.1.4 Variations in Density.- 6.1.5 Density of Springwood and Summerwood, Correlation with Width of Annual Rings.- 6.1.6 Content of Solid Matter in Piles of Wood and Wood Residues.- 6.2 Wood-Liquid Relations.- 6.2.1 Moisture Content, Definition.- 6.2.2 Determination of Moisture Content.- 6.2.2.1 Oven-drying Method.- 6.2.2.2 Distillation Method.- 6.2.2.3 Titration According to K. Fischer (1935); Eberius (1952, 1958).- 6.2.2.4 Hygrometric Methods.- 6.2.2.5 Electrical Moisture Meters.- 6.2.3 Sorption and Equilibrium Moisture Content.- 6.2.4 Recommended Moisture Content for Wood in Service.- 6.2.5 Fiber Saturation Point, Maximum Moisture Content of Wood.- 6.2.6 Thermodynamics of Sorption.- 6.2.7 Shrinkage and Swelling.- 6.2.7.1 Maximum Volumetric Shrinkage and Swelling, Influence of Drying Temperature.- 6.2.7.2 Anisotropy of Shrinkage and Swelling.- 6.2.7.3 Super-position of the Components of Swelling, Restrained Swelling.- 6.2.7.4 Swelling in Aqueous Solutions and Organic Liquids.- 6.2.7.5 Dimensional Stabilization of Wood.- 6.3 Capillary Movement and Diffusion in Wood.- 6.3.0 General Considerations on the Movement of Water in Wood Above and Below Fiber Saturation Point.- 6.3.1 Capillary Movement of Water in Wood.- 6.3.2 Diffusion of Water in Wood.- 6.3.3 Drying of Wood as a Diffusion Problem.- 6.3.3.1 Analogy to Fourier's Analysis for Heat Conduction.- 6.3.3.2 Approximated Calculation of the Drying Time.- 6.3.3.3 Stamm's Theoretical Drying Diffusion Coefficients.- 6.4 Physical Aspects of Wood Impregnation.- 6.4.1 Nonpressure Processes.- 6.4.2 Pressure Processes.- 6.4.2.0 General Considerations.- 6.4.2.1 Theory of Pressure Treatment of Wood.- 6.5 Thermal Properties of Wood.- 6.5.1 Thermal Expansion.- 6.5.2 Specific Heat of Wood.- 6.5.3 Thermal Conductivity of Wood.- 6.5.3.0 General Considerations.- 6.5.3.1 Influences of Structure and Density, Moisture Content and Temperature on the Thermal Conductivity of Wood.- 6.5.4 Diffusivity of Wood, Change of Temperature in Heated Wood.- 6.5.5 Radiation of Heat with Respect to Wood.- 6.6 Electrical Properties of Wood.- 6.6.1 Direct-current Properties: Electrical Resistance and Electrical Conductivity.- 6.6.2 Alternating-Current Properties of Wood.- 6.6.2.1 Resistivity.- 6.6.2.2 Dielectric Constant.- 6.6.2.3 Power Factor.- 6.6.3 Magnetic Properties of Wood and Wood Constituents.- 6.6.4 Piezoelectric Properties of Wood.- 6.7 Acoustical Properties of Wood.- 6.7.0 General Considerations.- 6.7.1 Sound Transmission in Wood.- 6.7.1.1 Sound Velocity.- 6.7.1.2 Sound Wave Resistance, Damping of Sound Radiation and Internal Friction.- 6.7.2 Acoustics of Buildings.- 6.7.2.1 Sound Energy.- 6.7.2.2 Sound Transmission Loss for Various Types of Construction.- 6.7.2.3 Sound Absorption.- Literature Cited.- 7. Mechanics and Rheology of Wood.- 7.1 Elasticity, Plasticity, and Creep.- 7.1.1 Hooke's Law, Modulus of Elasticity.- 7.1.2 Rhombic Symmetry of Wood, Systems of Elastic Constants.- 7.1.3 Poisson's Ratios.- 7.1.4 Compressibility (Bulk Modulus).- 7.1.5 Determination of Elastic Constants.- 7.1.5.1 Determination by Static Tests.- 7.1.5.2 Determination by Dynamic Tests.- 7.1.6 Influences Affecting the Elastic Properties of Wood.- 7.1.6.1 Grain Angle.- 7.1.6.2 Density.- 7.1.6.3 Moisture Content.- 7.1.6.4 Temperature.- 7.1.6.5 Knots and Notches.- 7.1.7 Plasticity and Creep.- 7.1.7.1 Stress-strain Behavior.- 7.1.7.2 Creep and Creep Recovery.- 7.1.7.3 Rheological Models and Mathematical Considerations.- 7.2 Tensile Strength.- 7.2.1 Tensile Strength of Cellulose Molecules, of Single Wood Fibers, and Breaking Length.- 7.2.2 Determination of Tensile Strength Along the Grain.- 7.2.3 Factors Affecting the Tensile Strength Along the Grain.- 7.2.3.1 Grain Angle.- 7.2.3.2 Density.- 7.2.3.3 Moisture Content.- 7.2.3.4 Temperature.- 7.2.3.5 Knots and Notches.- 7.2.4 Determination of Tensile Strength Perpendicular to the Grain, Cleavage.- 7.2.5 Fatigue in Tension Parallel to the Grain.- 7.3 Maximum Crushing Strength and Stresses in Wood Columns.- 7.3.0 General Considerations.- 7.3.1 Testing in Compression Parallel to Grain.- 7.3.2 Testing in Compression Perpendicular to Grain.- 7.3.3 Influences Affecting the Crushing Strength.- 7.3.3.1 Grain Angle.- 7.3.3.2 Density.- 7.3.3.3 Moisture Content.- 7.3.3.4 Temperature.- 7.3.3.5 Knots and Notches.- 7.3.3.6 Chemical Constituents.- 7.3.4 Fatigue in Compression Parallel to the Grain.- 7.3.5 Stresses in Solid Wood Columns.- 7.4 Bending Strength (Modulus of Rupture).- 7.4.0 General Considerations.- 7.4.1 Testing of Small Wooden Beams under Static Center Loading.- 7.4.2 Influences Affecting the Bending Strength (Modulus of Rupture).- 7.4.2.1 Grain Angle.- 7.4.2.2 Density.- 7.4.2.3 Moisture content.- 7.4.2.4 Temperature.- 7.4.2.5 Shape and Size of Beams, Knots and Notches.- 7.4.2.6 Fatigue in Bending.- 7.5 Shock Resistance or Toughness.- 7.5.0 General Considerations.- 7.5.1 Determination of Shock Resistance.- 7.5.1.1 Single Blow Impact Test.- 7.5.1.2 The Hatt-Turner Test (Successive Blows Impact Test).- 7.5.2. Comparison of Impact Test Results.- 7.5.3 Influences Affecting the Shock Resistance.- 7.5.3.1 Shape and Size of Beams, Notches (Izod-test).- 7.5.3.2 Grain Angle.- 7.5.3.3 Density.- 7.5.3.4 Moisture Content.- 7.5.3.5 Temperature.- 7.5.3.6 Anatomical Properties, Chemical Constituents, Decay.- 7.5.3.7 Types and Phenomena of Failures in Impact Bending.- 7.6 Torsional Properties and Shear Strength.- 7.6.0 General Considerations.- 7.6.1 Determination of Torsional Strength.- 7.6.2 Determination of Shearing Strength Parallel to Grain.- 7.7 Hardness and Abrasion Resistance.- 7.7.0 General Considerations.- 7.7.1 Hardness Tests.- 7.7.2 Factors Influencing the Hardness of Wood.- 7.7.3 Abrasion Resistance.- 7.7.4 Some Aspects of Nondestructive Testing of Wood and Timber Grading.- Literature Cited.- 8. Steaming and Seasoning of Wood.- 8.0 General Considerations.- 8.1 Air-drying.- 8.1.1 Moisture Content of Green Wood.- 8.1.2 Course of Air-drying.- 8.1.3 Yard Seasoning.- 8.1.3.1 Lumberyard Layout.- 8.1.3.2 Seasoning Periods.- 8.1.4 Accelerated Air-drying, Predrying.- 8.1.4.1 Fan Air-drying.- 8.1.4.2 Air-drying by Means of Swings or Centrifuges.- 8.1.4.3 Air-drying by Solar Heat.- 8.1.4.4 Predriers.- 8.2 Steaming.- 8.2.1 Reasons for Steaming.- 8.2.2 Methods of Steaming and Heat Consumption.- 8.2.3 Effects of Steaming on Wood.- 8.3 Kiln Drying.- 8.3.0 General Considerations.- 8.3.1 Fundamental Drying Factors.- 8.3.2 Defects in Wood due to Kiln Drying.- 8.3.2.0 General Considerations.- 8.3.2.1 Staining.- 8.3.2.2 Deformations (Warping, Twisting, Cupping).- 8.3.2.3 Casehardening.- 8.3.2.4 Collapse.- 8.3.3 Types of Kilns and Instruments.- 8.4 Special Seasoning Methods..- 8.4.1 High Temperature Drying.- 8.4.2 Drying by Boiling in Oily Liquids.- 8.4.3 Solvent Seasoning.- 8.4.4 Vapor Drying.- 8.4.5 Vacuum Drying.- 8.4.6 Chemical Seasoning.- 8.4.7 Drying by Direct Application of Electricity.- 8.4.7.1 Drying by Joule's Heat.- 8.4.7.2 High-frequency Dielectric Drying.- 8.4.8 Drying by Infrared Radiation.- Literature Cited.- 9. Wood Machining.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Technology of Sawing.- 9.2.1 Sash Gang Sawing.- 9.2.1.1 Cutting Velocity..- 9.2.1.2 Chip Thickness and Average Cutting Resistance.- 9.2.1.3 Consumption of Energy.- 9.2.1.4 Effects of Tooth Geometry, Tooth Height and Pitch.- 9.2.1.5 Influence of Setting.- 9.2.1.6 Strain and Stresses in Gang Saw Blades; Thermal Effects.- 9.2.1.7 Surface Quality.- 9.2.1.8 Yield.- 9.2.2 Band Sawing.- 9.2.2.1 General Considerations, Saw Blade Dimensions.- 9.2.2.2 Cutting Velocity and Cutting Resistance.- 9.2.2.3 Influence of Feed Speed.- 9.2.2.4 Effect of Depth of Timber Cut and of Grain Orientation.- 9.2.2.5 Effect of Tooth Geometry and Pitch.- 9.2.2.6 Band Tension and Stability.- 9.2.3 Circular Sawing.- 9.2.3.1 Introduction, Saw Blade Geometry, Kinematics.- 9.2.3.2 Effect of Cutting Velocity on the Cutting Resistance.- 9.2.3.3 Cutting Force and Cutting Power, Effect of Feed Rate or Feed per Tooth.- 9.2.3.4 Specific Cutting Energy.- 9.2.3.5 Effect of Depth of Timber Cut and of Grain Orientation.- 9.2.3.6 Effect of Blade Diameter and Blade Thickness.- 9.2.3.7 Effect of Tooth Geometry and Pitch.- 9.2.3.8 Chip Formation.- 9.2.3.9 Thermal Effects, Stresses, and Stability of Circular Saw Blades.- 9.2.3.10 Special Types of Circular Saw Blades.- 9.2.4 Chain sawing.- 9.2.4.1 Introduction.- 9.2.4.2 Machine Types.- 9.2.4.3 Chip Formation, Power Requirements.- 9.3 Proposed Methods of Chipless Wood-Cutting.- 9.3.1 Peeling and Slicing.- 9.3.2 Cutting with Vibration Cutters.- 9.3.3 Cutting with High-energy Jets.- 9.3.4 Cutting with the Laser.- 9.4 Technology of Jointing, Planing, Moulding and Shaping.- 9.4.1 General Considerations.- 9.4.2 Geometry of Cutterhead-knives.- 9.4.3 Cutting Velocity and Cutting Force.- 9.4.3.1 Effect of Cutting Velocity on the Cutting Force.- 9.4.3.2 Effect of Cutting-Circle Diameter, Feed Speed, and Number of Knives.- 9.4.3.3 Effect of Grain Orientation, Inclination of the Cutting Edge, and Chip Thicknes.- 9.4.3.4 Effect of Wood Species, Moisture Content and Temperature.- 9.4.3.5 Effect of Cutter Materials.- 9.4.3.6 Effect of Cutting Depth.- 9.4.3.7 The Blunting of Cutter Head Knives.- 9.4.4. Formation of Chips through Knife-cutting.- 9.4.4.1 Influence of Wood Moisture Content on Chip Formation.- 9.4.4.2 Influence of Knife Geometry on Chip Formation.- 9.4.4.3 Other Cutting Factors and their Effect on Chip Formation and Quality.- 9.5 Sanding.- 9.5.1 General Considerations.- 9.5.2 Abrasives.- 9.5.3 Technology of Sanding Process.- 9.6 Turning.- 9.6.1 General Considerations.- 9.6.2 Effects on the Turning of Wood.- 9.6.3 Quality of Turned Surfaces.- 9.7 Tenoning, Mortising and Boring.- 9.8 Bending of Solid Wood.- 9.8.1 General Considerations.- 9.8.2 Strains and Stresses in Wood Bending.- 9.8.3 Pretreatment of the Wood Prior to Bending.- 9.8.4 Methods and Machines for Wood Bending.- 9.8.5 Properties of Bent Wood.- 9.8.5.1 Sorption Properties.- 9.8.5.2 Mechanical Properties.- 9.9 Laminated Bending.- Literature Cited.- Author Index.

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Szczegóły: Principles of Wood Science and Technology - Wilfred A. Cote, Franz F. P. Kollmann

Tytuł: Principles of Wood Science and Technology
Autor: Wilfred A. Cote, Franz F. P. Kollmann
Producent: Springer Verlag
ISBN: 9783642879302
Rok produkcji: 2012
Ilość stron: 608
Oprawa: Miękka
Waga: 1 kg


Recenzje: Principles of Wood Science and Technology - Wilfred A. Cote, Franz F. P. Kollmann

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