Process Control Instrumentation Technology
Process Control Instrumentation Technology
Opis: Process Control Instrumentation Technology - Curtis D. Johnson
For Sophomore/Junior-level courses in Automatic Control Systems, Process Controls, and Instrumentation and Measurement. This text is designed to provide students with an understanding and appreciation of some of the essential concepts behind control system elements and operations, without the need of advanced math and theory. It also presents some of the practical details of how elements of a control system are designed and operated, such as would be gained from on-the-job experience. This edition includes treatment of modern fieldbus approaches to networked and distributed control systems. This middle ground of knowledge enables students to design the elements of a control system from a practical, working perspective, and comprehend how these elements affect overall system operation and tuning.(NOTE: Each chapter begins with an Instructional Objectives and Introduction section and concludes with a Summary and Problems section.) 1. Introduction to Process Control. Control Systems. Process-Control Principles. Servomechanisms. Discrete-State Control Systems. Process-Control Block Diagram. Identification of Elements. Block Diagram. Control System Evaluation. Stability. Steady-State Regulation. Transient Regulation. Evaluation Criteria. Analog and Digital Processing. Data Representation. ON/OFF Control. Analog Control. Digital Control. Programmable Logic Controllers. Units, Standards, and Definitions. Units. Analog Data Representation. Definitions. Process-Control Drawings. Sensor Time Response. First-Order Response. Second-Order Response. Significance and Statistics. Significant Figures. Statistics. 2. Analog Signal Conditioning. Principles of Analog Signal Conditioning. Signal-Level and Bias Changes. Linearization. Conversions. Filtering and Impedance Matching. Concept of Loading. Passive Circuits. Divider Circuits. Bridge Circuits. RC Filters. Operational Amplifiers. Op Amp Characteristics. Op Amp Specifications. Op Amp Circuits in Instrumentation. Voltage Follower. Inverting Amplifier. Noninverting Amplifier. Differential Instrumentation Amplifier. Voltage-to-Current Converter. Current-to-Voltage Converter. Integrator. Differentiator. Linearization. Design Guidelines. 3. Digital Signal Conditioning. Review of Digital Fundamentals. Digital Information. Fractional Binary Numbers. Boolean Algebra. Digital Electronics. Programmable Logic Controllers. Computer Interface. Converters. Comparators. Digital-to-Analog Converters (DACs). Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs). Frequency-Based Converters. Data-Acquisition Systems. DAS Hardware. DAS Software. Characteristics of Digital Data. Digitized Value. Sampled Data Systems. Linearization. 4. Thermal Sensors. Definition of Temperature. Thermal Energy. Temperature. Metal Resistance versus Temperature Devices. Metal Resistance versus Temperature. Resistance versus Temperature Approximations. Resistance-Temperature Detectors. Thermistors. Semiconductor Resistance versus Temperature. Thermistor Characteristics. Thermocouples. Thermoelectric Effects. Thermocouple Characteristics. Thermocouple Sensors. Other Thermal Sensors. Bimetal Strips. Gas Thermometers. Vapor-Pressure Thermometers. Liquid-Expansion Thermometers. Solid-State Temperature Sensors. Design Considerations. 5. Mechanical Sensors. Displacement, Location, or Position Sensors. Potentiometric Sensors. Capacitive and Inductive Sensors. Variable-Reluctance Sensors. Level Sensors. Strain Sensors. Strain and Stress. Strain Gauge Principles. Metal Strain Gauges. Semiconductor Strain Gauges (SGs). Load Cells. Motion Sensors. Types of Motion. Accelerometer Principles. Types of Accelerometers. Applications. Pressure Sensors. Pressure Principles. Pressure Sensors (p > 1 atmosphere). Pressure Sensors (p < 1 atmosphere). Flow Sensors. Solid-Flow Measurement. Liquid Flow. 6. Optical Sensors. Fundamentals of EM Radiation. Nature of EM Radiation. Characteristics of Light. Photometry. Photodetectors. Photodetector Characteristics. Photoconductive Detectors. Photovoltaic Detectors. Photodiode Detectors. Photoemissive Detectors. Pyrometry. Thermal Radiation. Broadband Pyrometers. Narrowband Pyrometers. Optical Sources. Conventional Light Sources. Laser Principles. Applications. Label Inspection. Turbidity. Ranging. 7. Final Control. Final Control Operation. Signal Conversions. Actuators. Control Element. Signal Conversions. Analog Electrical Signals. Digital Electrical Signals. Pneumatic Signals. Power Electronics. Switching Devices. Controlling Devices. Actuators. Electrical Actuators. Pneumatic Actuators. Hydraulic Actuators. Control Elements. Mechanical. Electrical. Fluid Valves. 8. Discrete-State Process Control. Definition of Discrete-State Process Control. Discrete-State Process Control. Characteristics of the System. Discrete-State Variables. Process Specifications. Event Sequence Description. Relay Controllers and Ladder Diagrams. Background. Ladder Diagram Elements. Ladder Diagram Examples. Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). Relay Sequences. Programmable Logic Controller Design. PLC Operation. Programming. PLC Software Functions. 9. Controller Principles. Process Characteristics. Process Equation. Process Load. Process Lag. Self-Regulation. Control System Parameters. Error. Variable Range. Control Parameter Range. Control Lag. Dead Time. Cycling. Controller Modes. Discontinuous Controller Modes. Two-Position Mode. Multiposition Mode. Floating-Control Mode. Continuous Controller Modes. Proportional Control Mode. Integral-Control Mode. Derivative-Control Mode. Composite Control Modes. Proportional-Integral Control (PI). Proportional-Derivative Control Mode (PD). Three-Mode Controller (PID). Special Terminology. 10. Analog Controllers. General Features. Typical Physical Layout. Front Panel. Side Panel. Electronic Controllers. Error Detector. Single Mode. Composite Controller Modes. Pneumatic Controllers. General Features. Mode Implementation. Design Considerations. 11. Computer-Based Control. Digital Applications. Alarms. Two-Position Control. Computer-Based Controller. Hardware Configurations. Software Requirements. Other Computer Applications. Data Logging. Supervisory Control. Control System Networks. Development. General Characteristics. Fieldbus Types. Computer Controller Examples. 12. Control LoopCharacteristics. Control System Configurations. Single Variable. Cascade Control. Multivariable Control Systems. Analog Control. Supervisory and Direct Digital Control. Control System Quality. Definition of Quality. Measure of Quality. Stability. Transfer Function Frequency Dependence. Stability Criteria. Process-Loop Tuning. Open-Loop Transient Response Method. Ziegler-Nichols Method. Frequency Response Methods. Appendixes. References. Glossary. Solutions to the Odd-Numbered Problems. Index.