Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering: v. 2

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Opis: Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering: v. 2 - Myer Kutz

The most comprehensive, up-to-date resource on engineering measurements covering all major engineering disciplines, Handbook of Engineering Measurements provides a multidisciplinary reference of engineering measurement theory, necessary tools, techniques of measurement and analysis, and applications. Encyclopedic in scope, beyond anything currently available on the market, Volume II covers and spans materials properties and testing, instrumentation, and measurement standards.VOLUME 2 PREFACE xxiii CONTRIBUTORS xxvii PART IV MATERIALS PROPERTIES AND TESTING 945 31 Viscosity Measurement 947 Ann M. Anderson, Bradford A. Bruno, and Lilla Safford Smith 31.1 Viscosity Background, 947 31.2 Common Units of Viscosity, 949 31.3 Major Viscosity Measurement Methods, 959 31.4 ASTM Standards for Measuring Viscosity, 974 31.5 Questions to Ask When Selecting a Viscosity Measurement Technique, 976 References, 979 32 Tribology Measurements 981 Prasanta Sahoo 32.1 Introduction, 982 32.2 Measurement of Surface Roughness, 983 32.3 Measurement of Friction, 988 32.4 Measurement of Wear, 992 32.5 Measurement of Test Environment, 994 32.6 Measurement of Material Characteristics, 998 32.7 Measurement of Lubricant Characteristics, 1001 32.8 Wear Particle Analysis, 1004 32.9 Industrial Measurements, 1005 32.10 Summary, 1006 33 Corrosion Monitoring 1007 Pierre R. Roberge 33.1 What is Corrosion Monitoring?, 1007 33.2 The Role of Corrosion Monitoring, 1008 33.3 Corrosion Monitoring System Considerations, 1010 References, 1116 34 Surface Properties Measurement 1121 Mrinalini Mulukutla and Sandip P. Harimkar 34.1 Introduction, 1121 34.2 Surface Properties, 1122 34.3 Microstructural Analysis, 1125 34.4 Compositional Analysis, 1128 34.5 Phase Analysis, 1130 34.6 Mechanical Testing, 1131 34.7 Corrosion Properties, 1141 34.8 Standards for Surface Engineering Measurement, 1145 References, 1147 35 Thermal Conductivity of Engineering Materials 1151 Juergen Blumm 35.1 Introduction, 1151 35.2 Stationary Methods for Measurement of the Thermal Conductivity, 1157 35.3 Transient Methods for the Measurement of the Thermal Conductivity, 1163 35.4 Test Results on Various Engineering Materials, 1173 References, 1188 36 Optical Methods for the Measurement of Thermal Conductivity 1189 Prabhakar R. Bandaru and Max S. Aubain 36.1 Thermal Boundary Resistance May Limit Accuracy in Contact-Based Thermal Conductivity (k) Measurements, 1189 36.2 Optical Measurements of k May Avoid Contact-Related Issues, 1192 36.3 Thermoreflectance (TR), 1196 36.4 Characteristics of Thermoreflectance from Si Thin Films--Modeling and Calibration, 1199 36.5 Experimental Procedures, 1202 36.6 Results and Discussion, 1204 36.7 Summary and Outlook, 1208 Acknowledgments, 1209 References, 1209 37 Selection of Metals for Structural Design 1213 Matthew J. Donachie 37.1 Introduction, 1214 37.2 Common Alloy Systems, 1215 37.3 What are Alloys and What Affects their Use?, 1215 37.4 What are the Properties of Alloys and How are Alloys Strengthened?, 1218 37.5 Manufacture of Alloy Articles, 1221 37.6 Alloy Information, 1221 37.7 Metals at Lower Temperatures, 1231 37.8 Metals at High Temperatures, 1233 37.9 Melting and Casting Practices, 1236 37.10 Forging, Forming, Powder Metallurgy, and Joining of Alloys, 1242 37.11 Surface Protection of Materials, 1245 37.12 Postservice Refurbishment and Repair, 1248 37.13 Alloy Selection: A Look at Possibilities, 1249 37.14 Level of Property Data, 1252 37.15 Thoughts on Alloy Systems, 1252 37.16 Selected Alloy Information Sources, 1259 Further Readings, 1261 38 Mechanical Properties of Polymers 1263 Daniel Liu, Jackie Rehkopf, and Maureen Reitman 38.1 Microstructure and Morphology of Polymers--Amorphous Versus Crystalline, 1264 38.2 General Stress--Strain Behavior, 1265 38.3 Viscoelasticity, 1271 38.4 Mechanical Models of Viscoelasticity, 1272 38.5 Time--Temperature Dependence, 1274 38.6 Deformation Mechanisms, 1274 38.7 Crazing, 1277 38.8 Fracture, 1279 38.9 Modifying Mechanical Properties, 1284 38.10 Load-Bearing Applications: Creep, Fatigue Resistance, and High Strain Rate Behavior, 1285 References, 1290 39 Electrical Properties of Polymers 1291 Evaristo Riande and Ricardo Diaz-Calleja 39.1 Introductory Remarks, 1291 39.2 Polarity and Permittivity, 1292 39.3 Measurements of Dielectric Permittivity, 1293 39.4 Polarization and Dipole Moments in Isotropic Systems, 1297 39.5 Thermostimulated Depolarization Currents, 1316 39.6 Conductivity in Polyelectrolytes and Polymer-Electrolytes as Separators for Low Temperature Fuel Cells and Electrical Batteries, 1318 39.7 Semiconductors and Electronic Conducting Polymers, 1324 39.8 Ferroelectricity, Pyroelectricity, and Piezoelectricity in Polymers, 1328 39.9 Nonlinear Polarization in Polymers, 1331 39.10 Elastomers for Actuators and Sensors, 1333 39.11 Electrical Breakdown in Polymers, 1336 References, 1338 40 Nondestructive Inspection 1343 Robert L. Crane and Jeremy S. Knopp 40.1 Introduction, 1344 40.2 Liquid Penetrants, 1347 40.3 Radiography, 1351 40.4 Ultrasonic Methods, 1361 40.5 Magnetic Particle Method, 1370 40.6 Thermal Methods, 1373 40.7 Eddy Current Methods, 1375 References, 1410 41 Testing of Metallic Materials 1413 Peter C. McKeighan 41.1 Mechanical Test Laboratory, 1414 41.2 Tensile and Compressive Property Testing, 1418 41.3 Creep and Stress Relaxation Testing, 1420 41.4 Hardness and Impact Testing, 1422 41.5 Fracture Toughness Testing, 1425 41.6 Fatigue Testing, 1429 41.7 Other Mechanical Testing, 1433 41.8 Environmental Considerations, 1434 Acknowledgments, 1436 References, 1436 42 Ceramics Testing 1437 Shawn K. McGuire and Michael G. Jenkins 42.1 Introduction, 1437 42.2 Mechanical Testing, 1438 42.3 Thermal Testing, 1451 42.4 Nondestructive Evaluation Testing, 1458 42.5 Electrical Testing, 1460 42.6 Summary, 1461 References, 1461 43 Plastics Testing 1463 Vishu Shah 43.1 Introduction, 1464 43.2 Mechanical Properties, 1464 43.3 Thermal Properties, 1481 43.4 Electrical Properties, 1484 43.5 Weathering Properties, 1488 43.6 Optical Properties, 1492 Further Readings, 1496 44 Testing and Instrumental Analysis for Plastics Processing: Key Characterization Techniques 1499 Maria del Pilar Noriega 44.1 FTIR Spectroscopy, 1499 44.2 Chromatography (GC, GC-MSD, GC-FID, and HPLC), 1500 44.3 DSC and Thermogravimetry (TGA), 1510 44.4 Rheometry, 1518 References, 1527 45 Analytical Tools for Estimation of Particulate Composite Material Properties 1529 Tarek I. Zohdi and Magd E. Zohdi 45.1 Introduction, 1529 45.2 Concepts in Statistical Quality Control, 1530 45.3 Effective Property Estimates, 1531 45.4 Summary, 1535 References, 1537 PART V INSTRUMENTATION 1539 46 Instrument Statics 1541 Jerry Lee Hall, Sriram Sundararajan, and Mahmood Naim 46.1 Terminology, 1541 46.2 Static Calibration, 1544 46.3 Statistics in the Measurement Process, 1547 References, 1570 47 Input and Output Characteristics 1573 Adam C. Bell 47.1 Introduction, 1574 47.2 Familiar Examples of Input--Output Interactions, 1575 47.3 Energy, Power, Impedance, 1578 47.4 Operating Point of Static Systems, 1586 47.5 Transforming the Operating Point, 1598 47.6 Measurement Systems, 1602 47.7 Distributed Systems in Brief, 1607 47.8 Concluding Remarks, 1609 References, 1610 48 Bridge Transducers 1611 Patrick L. Walter 48.1 Terminology, 1612 48.2 Flexural Devices in Measurement Systems, 1612 48.3 The Resistance Strain Gage, 1615 48.4 The Wheatstone Bridge, 1625 48.5 Resistance Bridge Balance Methods, 1634 48.6 Resistance Bridge Transducer Measurement System Calibration, 1636 48.7 Resistance Bridge Transducer Measurement System Considerations, 1646 48.8 AC Impedance Bridge Transducers, 1655 References, 1660 Further Readings, 1661 49 Signal Processing 1663 John Turnbull 49.1 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Linear Systems, 1663 49.2 Basic Analog Filters, 1666 49.3 Basic Digital Filter, 1672 49.4 Stability and Phase Analysis, 1680 49.5 Extracting Signal from Noise, 1682 References, 1683 50 Data Acquisition and Display Systems 1685 Philip C. Milliman 50.1 Introduction, 1686 50.2 Data Acquisition, 1687 50.3 Process Data Acquisition, 1688 50.4 Data Conditioning, 1691 50.5 Data Storage, 1699 50.6 Data Display and Reporting, 1704 50.7 Data Analysis, 1707 50.8 Data Communications, 1708 50.9 Other Data Acquisition and Display Topics, 1712 50.10 Summary, 1715 References, 1715 PART VI MEASUREMENT STANDARDS 1517 51 Mathematical and Physical Units, Standards, and Tables 1719 Jack H. Westbrook 51.1 Symbols and Abbreviations, 1720 Bibliography for Letter Symbols, 1731 Bibliography for Graphic Symbols, 1737 51.2 Mathematical Tables, 1742 51.3 Statistical Tables, 1765 51.4 Units and Standards, 1775 Bibliography for Units and Measurements, 1802 51.5 Tables of Conversion Factors, 1802 51.6 Standard Sizes, 1833 51.7 Standard Screws, 1886 52 Measurement Uncertainty 1911 David Clippinger 52.1 Introduction, 1911 52.2 Literature, 1914 52.3 Evaluation of Uncertainty, 1915 52.4 Discussion, 1924 Disclaimer, 1924 References, 1925 53 Measurements 1927 E. L. Hixson and E. A. Ripperger 53.1 Standards and Accuracy, 1927 53.2 Impedance Concepts, 1930 53.3 Error Analysis, 1935 References, 1942 INDEX I-1


Szczegóły: Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering: v. 2 - Myer Kutz

Tytuł: Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering: v. 2
Autor: Myer Kutz
Producent: John Wiley
ISBN: 9781118384640
Rok produkcji: 2013
Ilość stron: 1072
Oprawa: Twarda
Waga: 1.98 kg


Recenzje: Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering: v. 2 - Myer Kutz

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Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering: v. 2

The most comprehensive, up-to-date resource on engineering measurements covering all major engineering disciplines, Handbook of Engineering Measurements provides a multidisciplinary reference of engineering measurement theory, necessary tools, techniques of measurement and analysis, and applications. Encyclopedic in scope, beyond anything currently available on the market, Volume II covers and spans materials properties and testing, instrumentation, and measurement standards.VOLUME 2 PREFACE xxiii CONTRIBUTORS xxvii PART IV MATERIALS PROPERTIES AND TESTING 945 31 Viscosity Measurement 947 Ann M. Anderson, Bradford A. Bruno, and Lilla Safford Smith 31.1 Viscosity Background, 947 31.2 Common Units of Viscosity, 949 31.3 Major Viscosity Measurement Methods, 959 31.4 ASTM Standards for Measuring Viscosity, 974 31.5 Questions to Ask When Selecting a Viscosity Measurement Technique, 976 References, 979 32 Tribology Measurements 981 Prasanta Sahoo 32.1 Introduction, 982 32.2 Measurement of Surface Roughness, 983 32.3 Measurement of Friction, 988 32.4 Measurement of Wear, 992 32.5 Measurement of Test Environment, 994 32.6 Measurement of Material Characteristics, 998 32.7 Measurement of Lubricant Characteristics, 1001 32.8 Wear Particle Analysis, 1004 32.9 Industrial Measurements, 1005 32.10 Summary, 1006 33 Corrosion Monitoring 1007 Pierre R. Roberge 33.1 What is Corrosion Monitoring?, 1007 33.2 The Role of Corrosion Monitoring, 1008 33.3 Corrosion Monitoring System Considerations, 1010 References, 1116 34 Surface Properties Measurement 1121 Mrinalini Mulukutla and Sandip P. Harimkar 34.1 Introduction, 1121 34.2 Surface Properties, 1122 34.3 Microstructural Analysis, 1125 34.4 Compositional Analysis, 1128 34.5 Phase Analysis, 1130 34.6 Mechanical Testing, 1131 34.7 Corrosion Properties, 1141 34.8 Standards for Surface Engineering Measurement, 1145 References, 1147 35 Thermal Conductivity of Engineering Materials 1151 Juergen Blumm 35.1 Introduction, 1151 35.2 Stationary Methods for Measurement of the Thermal Conductivity, 1157 35.3 Transient Methods for the Measurement of the Thermal Conductivity, 1163 35.4 Test Results on Various Engineering Materials, 1173 References, 1188 36 Optical Methods for the Measurement of Thermal Conductivity 1189 Prabhakar R. Bandaru and Max S. Aubain 36.1 Thermal Boundary Resistance May Limit Accuracy in Contact-Based Thermal Conductivity (k) Measurements, 1189 36.2 Optical Measurements of k May Avoid Contact-Related Issues, 1192 36.3 Thermoreflectance (TR), 1196 36.4 Characteristics of Thermoreflectance from Si Thin Films--Modeling and Calibration, 1199 36.5 Experimental Procedures, 1202 36.6 Results and Discussion, 1204 36.7 Summary and Outlook, 1208 Acknowledgments, 1209 References, 1209 37 Selection of Metals for Structural Design 1213 Matthew J. Donachie 37.1 Introduction, 1214 37.2 Common Alloy Systems, 1215 37.3 What are Alloys and What Affects their Use?, 1215 37.4 What are the Properties of Alloys and How are Alloys Strengthened?, 1218 37.5 Manufacture of Alloy Articles, 1221 37.6 Alloy Information, 1221 37.7 Metals at Lower Temperatures, 1231 37.8 Metals at High Temperatures, 1233 37.9 Melting and Casting Practices, 1236 37.10 Forging, Forming, Powder Metallurgy, and Joining of Alloys, 1242 37.11 Surface Protection of Materials, 1245 37.12 Postservice Refurbishment and Repair, 1248 37.13 Alloy Selection: A Look at Possibilities, 1249 37.14 Level of Property Data, 1252 37.15 Thoughts on Alloy Systems, 1252 37.16 Selected Alloy Information Sources, 1259 Further Readings, 1261 38 Mechanical Properties of Polymers 1263 Daniel Liu, Jackie Rehkopf, and Maureen Reitman 38.1 Microstructure and Morphology of Polymers--Amorphous Versus Crystalline, 1264 38.2 General Stress--Strain Behavior, 1265 38.3 Viscoelasticity, 1271 38.4 Mechanical Models of Viscoelasticity, 1272 38.5 Time--Temperature Dependence, 1274 38.6 Deformation Mechanisms, 1274 38.7 Crazing, 1277 38.8 Fracture, 1279 38.9 Modifying Mechanical Properties, 1284 38.10 Load-Bearing Applications: Creep, Fatigue Resistance, and High Strain Rate Behavior, 1285 References, 1290 39 Electrical Properties of Polymers 1291 Evaristo Riande and Ricardo Diaz-Calleja 39.1 Introductory Remarks, 1291 39.2 Polarity and Permittivity, 1292 39.3 Measurements of Dielectric Permittivity, 1293 39.4 Polarization and Dipole Moments in Isotropic Systems, 1297 39.5 Thermostimulated Depolarization Currents, 1316 39.6 Conductivity in Polyelectrolytes and Polymer-Electrolytes as Separators for Low Temperature Fuel Cells and Electrical Batteries, 1318 39.7 Semiconductors and Electronic Conducting Polymers, 1324 39.8 Ferroelectricity, Pyroelectricity, and Piezoelectricity in Polymers, 1328 39.9 Nonlinear Polarization in Polymers, 1331 39.10 Elastomers for Actuators and Sensors, 1333 39.11 Electrical Breakdown in Polymers, 1336 References, 1338 40 Nondestructive Inspection 1343 Robert L. Crane and Jeremy S. Knopp 40.1 Introduction, 1344 40.2 Liquid Penetrants, 1347 40.3 Radiography, 1351 40.4 Ultrasonic Methods, 1361 40.5 Magnetic Particle Method, 1370 40.6 Thermal Methods, 1373 40.7 Eddy Current Methods, 1375 References, 1410 41 Testing of Metallic Materials 1413 Peter C. McKeighan 41.1 Mechanical Test Laboratory, 1414 41.2 Tensile and Compressive Property Testing, 1418 41.3 Creep and Stress Relaxation Testing, 1420 41.4 Hardness and Impact Testing, 1422 41.5 Fracture Toughness Testing, 1425 41.6 Fatigue Testing, 1429 41.7 Other Mechanical Testing, 1433 41.8 Environmental Considerations, 1434 Acknowledgments, 1436 References, 1436 42 Ceramics Testing 1437 Shawn K. McGuire and Michael G. Jenkins 42.1 Introduction, 1437 42.2 Mechanical Testing, 1438 42.3 Thermal Testing, 1451 42.4 Nondestructive Evaluation Testing, 1458 42.5 Electrical Testing, 1460 42.6 Summary, 1461 References, 1461 43 Plastics Testing 1463 Vishu Shah 43.1 Introduction, 1464 43.2 Mechanical Properties, 1464 43.3 Thermal Properties, 1481 43.4 Electrical Properties, 1484 43.5 Weathering Properties, 1488 43.6 Optical Properties, 1492 Further Readings, 1496 44 Testing and Instrumental Analysis for Plastics Processing: Key Characterization Techniques 1499 Maria del Pilar Noriega 44.1 FTIR Spectroscopy, 1499 44.2 Chromatography (GC, GC-MSD, GC-FID, and HPLC), 1500 44.3 DSC and Thermogravimetry (TGA), 1510 44.4 Rheometry, 1518 References, 1527 45 Analytical Tools for Estimation of Particulate Composite Material Properties 1529 Tarek I. Zohdi and Magd E. Zohdi 45.1 Introduction, 1529 45.2 Concepts in Statistical Quality Control, 1530 45.3 Effective Property Estimates, 1531 45.4 Summary, 1535 References, 1537 PART V INSTRUMENTATION 1539 46 Instrument Statics 1541 Jerry Lee Hall, Sriram Sundararajan, and Mahmood Naim 46.1 Terminology, 1541 46.2 Static Calibration, 1544 46.3 Statistics in the Measurement Process, 1547 References, 1570 47 Input and Output Characteristics 1573 Adam C. Bell 47.1 Introduction, 1574 47.2 Familiar Examples of Input--Output Interactions, 1575 47.3 Energy, Power, Impedance, 1578 47.4 Operating Point of Static Systems, 1586 47.5 Transforming the Operating Point, 1598 47.6 Measurement Systems, 1602 47.7 Distributed Systems in Brief, 1607 47.8 Concluding Remarks, 1609 References, 1610 48 Bridge Transducers 1611 Patrick L. Walter 48.1 Terminology, 1612 48.2 Flexural Devices in Measurement Systems, 1612 48.3 The Resistance Strain Gage, 1615 48.4 The Wheatstone Bridge, 1625 48.5 Resistance Bridge Balance Methods, 1634 48.6 Resistance Bridge Transducer Measurement System Calibration, 1636 48.7 Resistance Bridge Transducer Measurement System Considerations, 1646 48.8 AC Impedance Bridge Transducers, 1655 References, 1660 Further Readings, 1661 49 Signal Processing 1663 John Turnbull 49.1 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Linear Systems, 1663 49.2 Basic Analog Filters, 1666 49.3 Basic Digital Filter, 1672 49.4 Stability and Phase Analysis, 1680 49.5 Extracting Signal from Noise, 1682 References, 1683 50 Data Acquisition and Display Systems 1685 Philip C. Milliman 50.1 Introduction, 1686 50.2 Data Acquisition, 1687 50.3 Process Data Acquisition, 1688 50.4 Data Conditioning, 1691 50.5 Data Storage, 1699 50.6 Data Display and Reporting, 1704 50.7 Data Analysis, 1707 50.8 Data Communications, 1708 50.9 Other Data Acquisition and Display Topics, 1712 50.10 Summary, 1715 References, 1715 PART VI MEASUREMENT STANDARDS 1517 51 Mathematical and Physical Units, Standards, and Tables 1719 Jack H. Westbrook 51.1 Symbols and Abbreviations, 1720 Bibliography for Letter Symbols, 1731 Bibliography for Graphic Symbols, 1737 51.2 Mathematical Tables, 1742 51.3 Statistical Tables, 1765 51.4 Units and Standards, 1775 Bibliography for Units and Measurements, 1802 51.5 Tables of Conversion Factors, 1802 51.6 Standard Sizes, 1833 51.7 Standard Screws, 1886 52 Measurement Uncertainty 1911 David Clippinger 52.1 Introduction, 1911 52.2 Literature, 1914 52.3 Evaluation of Uncertainty, 1915 52.4 Discussion, 1924 Disclaimer, 1924 References, 1925 53 Measurements 1927 E. L. Hixson and E. A. Ripperger 53.1 Standards and Accuracy, 1927 53.2 Impedance Concepts, 1930 53.3 Error Analysis, 1935 References, 1942 INDEX I-1

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Szczegóły: Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering: v. 2 - Myer Kutz

Tytuł: Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering: v. 2
Autor: Myer Kutz
Producent: John Wiley
ISBN: 9781118384640
Rok produkcji: 2013
Ilość stron: 1072
Oprawa: Twarda
Waga: 1.98 kg


Recenzje: Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering: v. 2 - Myer Kutz

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