Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants in the Environment
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Opis: Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants in the Environment

One of the first books to cover transformation products, rather than primary compounds, Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants in the Environment gathers, specifies, synthesizes, and advances existing knowledge of the most important transformation product (TPs) of the main groups of emerging contaminants with potential concern to human health and the environment. This two-volume set for researchers and professionals covers the sources of TPs of emerging contaminants and their environmental behavior, their occurrence and effects on urban and marine environments, risk assessment and management, and technologies and strategies available for control.Preface xiii List of Contributors xv VOLUME 1 PART I GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 1 1 Classifying the Transformation Products (TPs) of Emerging Contaminants (ECs) for Prioritizing Research into their Impact on the Environment and Human Health 3 Jacek Namiesnik, Lidia Wolska, Radosaw Czernych, Grazyna Gaeziowska and Monia Cieszynska 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Emerging Contaminants -- Emerging Problem 5 1.3 Transformation Products of ECs 41 1.4 Minimizing Environmental Risk of ECs and their TPs 43 1.5 Concluding Remarks and Future Perspectives 45 References 49 2 Transformation Products of Emerging Organic Compounds as Future Groundwater and Drinking Water Contaminants 65 Marianne E. Stuart and Dan J. Lapworth 2.1 Introduction 65 2.2 Sources and Pathways of Emerging Contaminants to Groundwater 66 2.3 Persistence in the Groundwater Environment 68 2.4 Emerging Contaminants and their Transformation Products in Groundwater 69 2.5 Toxicity and Risk Assessment 76 2.6 Conclusions 78 References 79 PART II TRANSFORMATION PROCESSES AND TREATMENT STRATEGIES 87 3 Phototransformation Processes of Emerging Contaminants in Surface Water 89 Davide Vione and Serge Chiron 3.1 Introduction 89 3.2 Direct Photolysis and Sensitised Reactions in the Transformation of Emerging Contaminants 90 3.3 The Case of Photonitration 104 3.4 Towards the Modelling of Phototransformation Kinetics in Surface Water 106 References 118 4 Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants upon Reaction with Conventional Water Disinfection Oxidants 123 Jose Benito Quintana, Rosario Rodil and Isaac Rodr(c)Yguez 4.1 Introduction 123 4.2 Analytical Methodology for Transformation Products Identification 124 4.3 Factors Influencing the Kinetics of Chlorination 131 4.4 Overview of Typical Reaction Mechanisms During Free Chlorine Treatments 135 4.5 Review of Current Knowledge of Emerging Pollutant Reactions with Free Chlorine 138 4.6 Other Disinfection Agents 150 4.7 Conclusions and Outlook 155 References 155 5 Approaches to Water andWastewater Treatment for Removal of Emerging Contaminants: Ongoing Research and Recommendations for Future Work 161 Sixto Malato, P. Fernandez-Ibanez, I. Oller, L. Prieto-Rodriguez, S. Miralles-Cuevas and Alejandro Cabrera-Reina 5.1 Introduction 161 5.2 Ozonation 163 5.3 Membrane Processes 165 5.4 Membrane Bioreactors (MBR) 167 5.5 AOPs Including Solar AOPs 169 References 175 6 Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants Formed during Advanced Oxidation Processes 179 Ioannis K. Konstantinou, Dimitra A. Lambropoulou and Maria Antonopoulou 6.1 Introduction 179 6.2 Pesticides 180 6.3 Phthalate Esters 203 6.4 Pharmaceutical Compounds 204 6.5 Others 215 6.6 Conclusion 217 Acknowledgments 218 References 218 7 Enzymatic Reactors Applied for the Biotransformation of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals 229 J.M. Lema, M.T. Moreira, G. Eibes, T. Lu-Chau, L. Lloret, R. Taboada, A. Arca-Ramos and G. Feijoo 7.1 Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals 229 7.2 White-Rot Fungi and Their Lignin Modifying Enzymes 234 7.3 Enzymatic Reactors 238 7.4 Determination of Transformation Products from the Enzymatic Treatment of EDCs 248 References 255 8 Biologically Mediated Chiral Inversion of Emerging Contaminants 261 Stuart J. Khan 8.1 Introduction 261 8.3 Changes in Enantiomeric Composition During Biological Transformation Processes 268 8.4 Evidence for Biologically Mediated Chiral Inversion 271 8.5 Implications and Priorities for Future Research 274 References 274 PART III ANALYTICAL STRATEGIES 281 9 Quality Issues in Water Sampling, Sample Pre-Treatment and Monitoring 283 Sara Bogialli, Stefano Polesello and Sara Valsecchi 9.1 Introduction 283 9.2 Monitoring of Transformation Products in Water Bodies 284 9.3 Sample Representativeness and Stability Issues 287 9.4 Identification of Transformation Products and Legislative Requirements 292 9.5 Conclusions 297 References 298 10 Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants: Analytical Challenges and Future Needs 303 B. Zonja, J. Acena, A. Jelic, M. Petrovic, S. Perez and D. Barcelo 10.1 Introduction 303 10.2 Generation, Detection and Identification of Transformation Products at Lab Scale: An Analytical Challenge 305 10.3 Quantitative Analysis of TPs in the Environment 311 10.4 Evaluation of the Toxicity of TPs 318 10.5 Conclusions and Future Needs 319 Acknowledgments 320 References 320 11 Advanced Mass Spectrometry-Based Techniques for the Identification and Structure Elucidation of Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants 325 Paola Calza and Fabbri Debora 11.1 Introduction 325 11.2 Potential and Differences Among the Different MS Systems for Determining Unknown Compounds 326 11.3 How to Proceed in the Structural Attribution 330 11.4 Accurate Mass Screening and Identification of Emerging Contaminants in Environmental Samples: Some Cases Studied 334 11.5 Conclusions 345 References 346 12 Applications of NMR Techniques for the Identification and Structure Elucidation of Emerging Organic and Other Xenobiotic Organic Contaminants 351 Alfred Preiss and Markus Godejohann 12.1 Introduction 351 12.2 Basic Techniques 353 12.3 Applications 359 12.4 Conclusions 377 List of Abbreviations 377 References 378 Index 385 VOLUME 2 PART IV OCCURRENCE, FATE AND EFFECTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: AN OVERVIEW OF MAJOR CLASSES 385 13 Transformation Products of Pesticides in the Environment: Analysis and Occurrence 387 Ana Aguera Lopez, Marya del Mar Gomez Ramos, and Amadeo R. Fernandez-Alba 13.1 Introduction 387 13.2 Transformation of Pesticides in the Environment 388 13.3 Analytical Techniques Used in the Identification and Analysis of TPs 408 13.4 Occurrence of Pesticide TPs in the Environment 418 13.5 Concluding Remarks 419 Acknowledgments 420 References 420 14 Metabolites and Transformation Products of Pharmaceuticals in the Aquatic Environment as Contaminants of Emerging Concern 425 I. Michael, M.I. Vasquez, E. Hapeshi, T. Haddad, E. Baginska, K. Kummerer, and D. Fatta-Kassinos 14.1 Introduction 425 14.2 Human Metabolites in the Aquatic Environment 427 14.3 Biotransformation Products in the Aquatic Environment 430 14.4 Transformation of Pharmaceuticals During Photolysis and Advanced Oxidation Processes 437 14.5 Conclusions and Outlook 458 Acknowledgments 459 References 459 15 Transformation Products of Personal Care Products: UV Filters Case Studies 471 Kristina Pestotnik, Tina Kosjek, and Ester Heath 15.1 Introduction 471 15.2 Main Physico-Chemical Parameters of UV Filters and their Influence on Environmental Behaviour 473 15.3 Occurrence of UV Filter Residues 477 15.4 Fate of UV Filter Residues 479 15.5 Analytical Methods for Identification of Transformation Products 490 15.6 Effects and Toxicity of UV Filters and their Transformation Products in the Environment 495 15.7 Conclusions and Future Strategies 498 Acknowledgements 499 Abbreviations 499 References 501 16 Transformation Products of Illicit Drugs 505 Dimitra A. Lambropoulou and Eleni Evgenidou 16.1 Introduction 505 16.2 Fate and Treatment of IDs and Their Metabolites/TPs 507 16.3 Analytical Methods and Detection 515 16.4 Occurrence of IDs and their Metabolites/TPs in the Environment 519 16.5 Ecotoxicity of IDs and Their Metabolites/TPs 525 16.5.1 Sewage Epidemiology 526 16.6 Concluding Remarks 527 References 527 17 Transformation Products of Artificial Sweeteners 537 Marco Scheurer, Heinz-Jurgen Brauch, and Frank Thomas Lange 17.1 Introduction 537 17.2 Processes Leading to the Formation of Artificial Sweetener Transformation Products 539 17.3 Summary and Conclusions 551 References 552 18 Transformation Products of Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs) 557 Alin C. Dirtu, Alin C. Ionas, Govindan Malarvannan, and Adrian Covaci 18.1 Introduction 557 18.2 Transformation Products of PBDEs 558 18.3 Transformation Products of HBCDs 569 18.4 Transformation Products of TBBPA 573 18.5 Transformation Products of NBFRs 578 18.6 Concluding Remarks and Future Perspectives 580 Acknowledgements 580 References 581 19 Transformation Products of Alkylphenols 589 Montserrat Cortina-Puig, Gabino Bolyvar-Subirats, Carlos Barata, and Silvia Lacorte 19.1 Alkylphenols: Types, Properties and Uses 589 19.2 Transformation of Alkylphenols and Identification of Transformation Products 592 19.3 Occurrence of Alkylphenol Transformation Products in the Environment 603 19.4 Risks and Effects of Alkylphenols and their Transformation Products in the Environment 610 19.5 Conclusions 615 Acknowledgments 616 References 616 20 Biotic and Abiotic Transformation Processes of Benzotriazoles: Possible Pathways and Products 625 Dimitra Voutsa 20.1 Introduction 625 20.2 Biotic Degradation Processes 627 20.3 Abiotic Transformation Processes 631 20.4 Future Research Needs 634 References 634 21 Identification (Quantitative Determination and Detection) and Fate of Transformation Products of Rocket Fuel 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine 639 Bulat Kenessov, Lars Carlsen 21.1 Introduction/Background 639 21.2 Identification of Transformation Products of 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine 640 21.3 Distribution and Fate of Transformation Products of 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine in Soil at Fall Sites 646 21.4 Analytical Methods Applied in the Monitoring 647 21.5 Conclusion 656 References 657 22 Assessment of the Occurrence and Fate of Transformation Products of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds EDCs in the Environment 661 Vasiliki Boti, Vasilios Sakkas, and Triantafyllos Albanis 22.1 Introduction 661 22.2 Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs) of Concern 662 22.3 Environmental Fate and Transformation of EDCs 664 22.4 Analytical Methodology 666 22.5 Occurrence and Endocrine Disruption Effects of the TPs of Selected EDCs 672 22.6 Future Needs --Recommendations 680 References 681 23 Transformation Products of Hazardous Cyanobacterial Metabolites in Water 687 Anastasia Hiskia, Theodoros M. Triantis, Maria G. Antoniou, Armah A. de la Cruz, Kevin O'Shea, Weihua Song, Theodora Fotiou, Triantafyllos Kaloudis, Xuexiang He, Joel Andersen, and Dionysios D. Dionysiou 23.1 Introduction 688 23.2 Cyanobacterial Secondary Metabolites 688 23.3 Transformation Products of Cyanobacterial Metabolites in Water 694 23.4 Research Gaps, Recent Trends and Future Needs 710 References 711 PART V GLOBAL SPACIALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL STATUS OF TRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT 721 24 Occurrence of Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants in Water Resources 723 Carlos GonScalves, Maria A.D. de Sousa, and Maria de Fatima Alpendurada 24.1 Brief Introduction on the Sources of Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants 723 24.2 Transformation Products in Natural Waters: From Contamination Sources to Drinking Water Production 725 24.3 Wastewaters as a Major Source of Transformation Products 744 24.4 Origin and Presence of Transformation Products in Drinking Water 750 24.5 Ubiquity and Regio-Specificity of Transformation Products 752 24.6 Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants: Fate and Behavior 753 24.7 Conclusions 756 References 758 25 Occurrence of Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants in Water Resources of the United States 763 Imma Ferrer and E. Michael Thurman 25.1 Introduction: Emerging Contaminants 763 25.2 State-of-the-Art Techniques for the Identification of Emerging Contaminants and Their Transformation Products 764 25.3 Use of Accurate Mass Tools for the Identification of Emerging Contaminants 768 25.4 Occurrence of Transformation Products in Environmental Waters in the US 779 References 782 26 Spatial Modeling for Elucidation of Perfluorinated Compound Sources and Fate in a Watershed 787 Yasuyuki Zushi and Shigeki Masunaga 26.1 Introduction 787 26.2 Source Identification of PFCs Using GIS 792 26.3 Spatial Distribution of PFOS and PFOA Contributed by Nonpoint Sources 798 26.4 Conclusion 804 Acknowledgments 805 References 805 27 Global Distribution of Polyfluoroalkyl and Perfluoroalkyl Substances and their Transformation Products in Environmental Solids 809 Holly Lee and Scott A. Mabury 27.1 Introduction 809 27.2 Global Contamination of PFASs in Environmental Solid Matrices 813 27.3 Fate of PFASs in Environmental Solids 821 27.4 Uptake into Vegetation 827 27.5 Summary and Future Outlook 829 References 830 PART VI RISK ASSESSMENT, MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK 839 28 Toxicity and Risk of Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants for Aquatic Organisms: Pharmaceutical Case Studies 841 Marina DellaGreca, Marina Isidori, Fabio Temussi 28.1 Introduction 841 28.2 Photolysis in the Environment: Pharmaceutical Case Studies 844 28.3 Effect-Driven Approach 844 28.4 Exposure-Driven Approach 853 28.5 Conclusion 867 References 868 29 Quantitative Structure--Activity Relationship/Quantitative Structure-- Toxicity Relationship (QSAR/QSTR) Modeling as Tools for Assessing Effects and Predicting Risks of Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants 871 Lars Carlsen and Bulat Kenessov 29.1 Introduction 871 29.2 The Toolbox 873 29.3 Environmental Behavior 876 29.4 Ecotoxicological Effect 879 29.5 Effects on Humans 880 29.6 Conclusions 885 References 885 30 Steps Toward a Regulatory Framework for Transformation Products in Water 889 Maria D. Hernando Guil, Maria J. Martynez-Bueno, Laura Duran, Jose M. Navas and Amadeo R. Fernandez-Alba 30.1 Introduction 889 30.2 Scientific Advances and Technical Knowledge of Transformation Products. Relevant Cases of Study 891 30.3 Toxicological Considerations in Assessing Mixtures of Chemicals and Significance of Transformation Products in EU Regulations. Interaction Between Regulatory Frameworks 906 References 908 31 NORMAN Association: A Network Approach to Scientific Collaboration on Emerging Contaminants and their Transformation Products in Europe 915 Jaroslav Slobodnik and Valeria Dulio 31.1 Introduction 915 31.2 The NORMAN Network as a Science-to-Policy Interface 917 31.3 Effect-Directed Analysis for Identification of Relevant Emerging Contaminants and their Transformation Products in Complex Environmental Samples 921 31.4 Quality Control Aspects 924 31.5 Conclusions 925 Acknowledgements 926 References 926 PART VII OUTLOOK 929 32 Outlook 931 32.1 General Remarks 931 32.2 Gaps, Recommendations and Future Needs 933 Index 937


Szczegóły: Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants in the Environment

Tytuł: Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants in the Environment
Producent: John Wiley
ISBN: 9781118339596
Rok produkcji: 2014
Ilość stron: 964
Oprawa: Twarda
Waga: 2.14 kg


Recenzje: Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants in the Environment
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Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants in the Environment

One of the first books to cover transformation products, rather than primary compounds, Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants in the Environment gathers, specifies, synthesizes, and advances existing knowledge of the most important transformation product (TPs) of the main groups of emerging contaminants with potential concern to human health and the environment. This two-volume set for researchers and professionals covers the sources of TPs of emerging contaminants and their environmental behavior, their occurrence and effects on urban and marine environments, risk assessment and management, and technologies and strategies available for control.Preface xiii List of Contributors xv VOLUME 1 PART I GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 1 1 Classifying the Transformation Products (TPs) of Emerging Contaminants (ECs) for Prioritizing Research into their Impact on the Environment and Human Health 3 Jacek Namiesnik, Lidia Wolska, Radosaw Czernych, Grazyna Gaeziowska and Monia Cieszynska 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Emerging Contaminants -- Emerging Problem 5 1.3 Transformation Products of ECs 41 1.4 Minimizing Environmental Risk of ECs and their TPs 43 1.5 Concluding Remarks and Future Perspectives 45 References 49 2 Transformation Products of Emerging Organic Compounds as Future Groundwater and Drinking Water Contaminants 65 Marianne E. Stuart and Dan J. Lapworth 2.1 Introduction 65 2.2 Sources and Pathways of Emerging Contaminants to Groundwater 66 2.3 Persistence in the Groundwater Environment 68 2.4 Emerging Contaminants and their Transformation Products in Groundwater 69 2.5 Toxicity and Risk Assessment 76 2.6 Conclusions 78 References 79 PART II TRANSFORMATION PROCESSES AND TREATMENT STRATEGIES 87 3 Phototransformation Processes of Emerging Contaminants in Surface Water 89 Davide Vione and Serge Chiron 3.1 Introduction 89 3.2 Direct Photolysis and Sensitised Reactions in the Transformation of Emerging Contaminants 90 3.3 The Case of Photonitration 104 3.4 Towards the Modelling of Phototransformation Kinetics in Surface Water 106 References 118 4 Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants upon Reaction with Conventional Water Disinfection Oxidants 123 Jose Benito Quintana, Rosario Rodil and Isaac Rodr(c)Yguez 4.1 Introduction 123 4.2 Analytical Methodology for Transformation Products Identification 124 4.3 Factors Influencing the Kinetics of Chlorination 131 4.4 Overview of Typical Reaction Mechanisms During Free Chlorine Treatments 135 4.5 Review of Current Knowledge of Emerging Pollutant Reactions with Free Chlorine 138 4.6 Other Disinfection Agents 150 4.7 Conclusions and Outlook 155 References 155 5 Approaches to Water andWastewater Treatment for Removal of Emerging Contaminants: Ongoing Research and Recommendations for Future Work 161 Sixto Malato, P. Fernandez-Ibanez, I. Oller, L. Prieto-Rodriguez, S. Miralles-Cuevas and Alejandro Cabrera-Reina 5.1 Introduction 161 5.2 Ozonation 163 5.3 Membrane Processes 165 5.4 Membrane Bioreactors (MBR) 167 5.5 AOPs Including Solar AOPs 169 References 175 6 Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants Formed during Advanced Oxidation Processes 179 Ioannis K. Konstantinou, Dimitra A. Lambropoulou and Maria Antonopoulou 6.1 Introduction 179 6.2 Pesticides 180 6.3 Phthalate Esters 203 6.4 Pharmaceutical Compounds 204 6.5 Others 215 6.6 Conclusion 217 Acknowledgments 218 References 218 7 Enzymatic Reactors Applied for the Biotransformation of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals 229 J.M. Lema, M.T. Moreira, G. Eibes, T. Lu-Chau, L. Lloret, R. Taboada, A. Arca-Ramos and G. Feijoo 7.1 Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals 229 7.2 White-Rot Fungi and Their Lignin Modifying Enzymes 234 7.3 Enzymatic Reactors 238 7.4 Determination of Transformation Products from the Enzymatic Treatment of EDCs 248 References 255 8 Biologically Mediated Chiral Inversion of Emerging Contaminants 261 Stuart J. Khan 8.1 Introduction 261 8.3 Changes in Enantiomeric Composition During Biological Transformation Processes 268 8.4 Evidence for Biologically Mediated Chiral Inversion 271 8.5 Implications and Priorities for Future Research 274 References 274 PART III ANALYTICAL STRATEGIES 281 9 Quality Issues in Water Sampling, Sample Pre-Treatment and Monitoring 283 Sara Bogialli, Stefano Polesello and Sara Valsecchi 9.1 Introduction 283 9.2 Monitoring of Transformation Products in Water Bodies 284 9.3 Sample Representativeness and Stability Issues 287 9.4 Identification of Transformation Products and Legislative Requirements 292 9.5 Conclusions 297 References 298 10 Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants: Analytical Challenges and Future Needs 303 B. Zonja, J. Acena, A. Jelic, M. Petrovic, S. Perez and D. Barcelo 10.1 Introduction 303 10.2 Generation, Detection and Identification of Transformation Products at Lab Scale: An Analytical Challenge 305 10.3 Quantitative Analysis of TPs in the Environment 311 10.4 Evaluation of the Toxicity of TPs 318 10.5 Conclusions and Future Needs 319 Acknowledgments 320 References 320 11 Advanced Mass Spectrometry-Based Techniques for the Identification and Structure Elucidation of Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants 325 Paola Calza and Fabbri Debora 11.1 Introduction 325 11.2 Potential and Differences Among the Different MS Systems for Determining Unknown Compounds 326 11.3 How to Proceed in the Structural Attribution 330 11.4 Accurate Mass Screening and Identification of Emerging Contaminants in Environmental Samples: Some Cases Studied 334 11.5 Conclusions 345 References 346 12 Applications of NMR Techniques for the Identification and Structure Elucidation of Emerging Organic and Other Xenobiotic Organic Contaminants 351 Alfred Preiss and Markus Godejohann 12.1 Introduction 351 12.2 Basic Techniques 353 12.3 Applications 359 12.4 Conclusions 377 List of Abbreviations 377 References 378 Index 385 VOLUME 2 PART IV OCCURRENCE, FATE AND EFFECTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: AN OVERVIEW OF MAJOR CLASSES 385 13 Transformation Products of Pesticides in the Environment: Analysis and Occurrence 387 Ana Aguera Lopez, Marya del Mar Gomez Ramos, and Amadeo R. Fernandez-Alba 13.1 Introduction 387 13.2 Transformation of Pesticides in the Environment 388 13.3 Analytical Techniques Used in the Identification and Analysis of TPs 408 13.4 Occurrence of Pesticide TPs in the Environment 418 13.5 Concluding Remarks 419 Acknowledgments 420 References 420 14 Metabolites and Transformation Products of Pharmaceuticals in the Aquatic Environment as Contaminants of Emerging Concern 425 I. Michael, M.I. Vasquez, E. Hapeshi, T. Haddad, E. Baginska, K. Kummerer, and D. Fatta-Kassinos 14.1 Introduction 425 14.2 Human Metabolites in the Aquatic Environment 427 14.3 Biotransformation Products in the Aquatic Environment 430 14.4 Transformation of Pharmaceuticals During Photolysis and Advanced Oxidation Processes 437 14.5 Conclusions and Outlook 458 Acknowledgments 459 References 459 15 Transformation Products of Personal Care Products: UV Filters Case Studies 471 Kristina Pestotnik, Tina Kosjek, and Ester Heath 15.1 Introduction 471 15.2 Main Physico-Chemical Parameters of UV Filters and their Influence on Environmental Behaviour 473 15.3 Occurrence of UV Filter Residues 477 15.4 Fate of UV Filter Residues 479 15.5 Analytical Methods for Identification of Transformation Products 490 15.6 Effects and Toxicity of UV Filters and their Transformation Products in the Environment 495 15.7 Conclusions and Future Strategies 498 Acknowledgements 499 Abbreviations 499 References 501 16 Transformation Products of Illicit Drugs 505 Dimitra A. Lambropoulou and Eleni Evgenidou 16.1 Introduction 505 16.2 Fate and Treatment of IDs and Their Metabolites/TPs 507 16.3 Analytical Methods and Detection 515 16.4 Occurrence of IDs and their Metabolites/TPs in the Environment 519 16.5 Ecotoxicity of IDs and Their Metabolites/TPs 525 16.5.1 Sewage Epidemiology 526 16.6 Concluding Remarks 527 References 527 17 Transformation Products of Artificial Sweeteners 537 Marco Scheurer, Heinz-Jurgen Brauch, and Frank Thomas Lange 17.1 Introduction 537 17.2 Processes Leading to the Formation of Artificial Sweetener Transformation Products 539 17.3 Summary and Conclusions 551 References 552 18 Transformation Products of Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs) 557 Alin C. Dirtu, Alin C. Ionas, Govindan Malarvannan, and Adrian Covaci 18.1 Introduction 557 18.2 Transformation Products of PBDEs 558 18.3 Transformation Products of HBCDs 569 18.4 Transformation Products of TBBPA 573 18.5 Transformation Products of NBFRs 578 18.6 Concluding Remarks and Future Perspectives 580 Acknowledgements 580 References 581 19 Transformation Products of Alkylphenols 589 Montserrat Cortina-Puig, Gabino Bolyvar-Subirats, Carlos Barata, and Silvia Lacorte 19.1 Alkylphenols: Types, Properties and Uses 589 19.2 Transformation of Alkylphenols and Identification of Transformation Products 592 19.3 Occurrence of Alkylphenol Transformation Products in the Environment 603 19.4 Risks and Effects of Alkylphenols and their Transformation Products in the Environment 610 19.5 Conclusions 615 Acknowledgments 616 References 616 20 Biotic and Abiotic Transformation Processes of Benzotriazoles: Possible Pathways and Products 625 Dimitra Voutsa 20.1 Introduction 625 20.2 Biotic Degradation Processes 627 20.3 Abiotic Transformation Processes 631 20.4 Future Research Needs 634 References 634 21 Identification (Quantitative Determination and Detection) and Fate of Transformation Products of Rocket Fuel 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine 639 Bulat Kenessov, Lars Carlsen 21.1 Introduction/Background 639 21.2 Identification of Transformation Products of 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine 640 21.3 Distribution and Fate of Transformation Products of 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine in Soil at Fall Sites 646 21.4 Analytical Methods Applied in the Monitoring 647 21.5 Conclusion 656 References 657 22 Assessment of the Occurrence and Fate of Transformation Products of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds EDCs in the Environment 661 Vasiliki Boti, Vasilios Sakkas, and Triantafyllos Albanis 22.1 Introduction 661 22.2 Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs) of Concern 662 22.3 Environmental Fate and Transformation of EDCs 664 22.4 Analytical Methodology 666 22.5 Occurrence and Endocrine Disruption Effects of the TPs of Selected EDCs 672 22.6 Future Needs --Recommendations 680 References 681 23 Transformation Products of Hazardous Cyanobacterial Metabolites in Water 687 Anastasia Hiskia, Theodoros M. Triantis, Maria G. Antoniou, Armah A. de la Cruz, Kevin O'Shea, Weihua Song, Theodora Fotiou, Triantafyllos Kaloudis, Xuexiang He, Joel Andersen, and Dionysios D. Dionysiou 23.1 Introduction 688 23.2 Cyanobacterial Secondary Metabolites 688 23.3 Transformation Products of Cyanobacterial Metabolites in Water 694 23.4 Research Gaps, Recent Trends and Future Needs 710 References 711 PART V GLOBAL SPACIALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL STATUS OF TRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT 721 24 Occurrence of Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants in Water Resources 723 Carlos GonScalves, Maria A.D. de Sousa, and Maria de Fatima Alpendurada 24.1 Brief Introduction on the Sources of Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants 723 24.2 Transformation Products in Natural Waters: From Contamination Sources to Drinking Water Production 725 24.3 Wastewaters as a Major Source of Transformation Products 744 24.4 Origin and Presence of Transformation Products in Drinking Water 750 24.5 Ubiquity and Regio-Specificity of Transformation Products 752 24.6 Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants: Fate and Behavior 753 24.7 Conclusions 756 References 758 25 Occurrence of Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants in Water Resources of the United States 763 Imma Ferrer and E. Michael Thurman 25.1 Introduction: Emerging Contaminants 763 25.2 State-of-the-Art Techniques for the Identification of Emerging Contaminants and Their Transformation Products 764 25.3 Use of Accurate Mass Tools for the Identification of Emerging Contaminants 768 25.4 Occurrence of Transformation Products in Environmental Waters in the US 779 References 782 26 Spatial Modeling for Elucidation of Perfluorinated Compound Sources and Fate in a Watershed 787 Yasuyuki Zushi and Shigeki Masunaga 26.1 Introduction 787 26.2 Source Identification of PFCs Using GIS 792 26.3 Spatial Distribution of PFOS and PFOA Contributed by Nonpoint Sources 798 26.4 Conclusion 804 Acknowledgments 805 References 805 27 Global Distribution of Polyfluoroalkyl and Perfluoroalkyl Substances and their Transformation Products in Environmental Solids 809 Holly Lee and Scott A. Mabury 27.1 Introduction 809 27.2 Global Contamination of PFASs in Environmental Solid Matrices 813 27.3 Fate of PFASs in Environmental Solids 821 27.4 Uptake into Vegetation 827 27.5 Summary and Future Outlook 829 References 830 PART VI RISK ASSESSMENT, MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK 839 28 Toxicity and Risk of Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants for Aquatic Organisms: Pharmaceutical Case Studies 841 Marina DellaGreca, Marina Isidori, Fabio Temussi 28.1 Introduction 841 28.2 Photolysis in the Environment: Pharmaceutical Case Studies 844 28.3 Effect-Driven Approach 844 28.4 Exposure-Driven Approach 853 28.5 Conclusion 867 References 868 29 Quantitative Structure--Activity Relationship/Quantitative Structure-- Toxicity Relationship (QSAR/QSTR) Modeling as Tools for Assessing Effects and Predicting Risks of Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants 871 Lars Carlsen and Bulat Kenessov 29.1 Introduction 871 29.2 The Toolbox 873 29.3 Environmental Behavior 876 29.4 Ecotoxicological Effect 879 29.5 Effects on Humans 880 29.6 Conclusions 885 References 885 30 Steps Toward a Regulatory Framework for Transformation Products in Water 889 Maria D. Hernando Guil, Maria J. Martynez-Bueno, Laura Duran, Jose M. Navas and Amadeo R. Fernandez-Alba 30.1 Introduction 889 30.2 Scientific Advances and Technical Knowledge of Transformation Products. Relevant Cases of Study 891 30.3 Toxicological Considerations in Assessing Mixtures of Chemicals and Significance of Transformation Products in EU Regulations. Interaction Between Regulatory Frameworks 906 References 908 31 NORMAN Association: A Network Approach to Scientific Collaboration on Emerging Contaminants and their Transformation Products in Europe 915 Jaroslav Slobodnik and Valeria Dulio 31.1 Introduction 915 31.2 The NORMAN Network as a Science-to-Policy Interface 917 31.3 Effect-Directed Analysis for Identification of Relevant Emerging Contaminants and their Transformation Products in Complex Environmental Samples 921 31.4 Quality Control Aspects 924 31.5 Conclusions 925 Acknowledgements 926 References 926 PART VII OUTLOOK 929 32 Outlook 931 32.1 General Remarks 931 32.2 Gaps, Recommendations and Future Needs 933 Index 937

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Szczegóły: Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants in the Environment

Tytuł: Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants in the Environment
Producent: John Wiley
ISBN: 9781118339596
Rok produkcji: 2014
Ilość stron: 964
Oprawa: Twarda
Waga: 2.14 kg


Recenzje: Transformation Products of Emerging Contaminants in the Environment

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