Extremophiles

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Opis: Extremophiles - Om V. Singh

Explores the utility and potential of extremophiles in sustainability and biotechnology Many extremophilic bio-products are already used as life-saving drugs. Until recently, however, the difficulty of working with these microbes has discouraged efforts to develop extremophilic microbes as potential drug reservoirs of the future. Recent technological advances have opened the door to exploring these organisms anew as sources of products that might prove useful in clinical and environmental biotechnology and drug development. Extremophiles features outstanding articles by expert scientists who shed light on broad-ranging areas of progress in the development of smart therapeutics for multiple disease types and products for industrial use. It bridges technological gaps, focusing on critical aspects of extremolytes and the mechanisms regulating their biosynthesis that are relevant to human health and bioenergy, including value-added products of commercial significance as well as other potentially viable products. This groundbreaking guide: Introduces the variety of extremophiles and their extremolytes including extremozymes Provides an overview of the methodologies used to acquire extremophiles Reviews the literature on the diversity of extremophiles Offers tools and criteria for data interpretation of various extremolytes/extremozymes Discusses experimental design problems associated with extremophiles and their therapeutic implications Explores the challenges and possibilities of developing extremolytes for commercial purposes Explains the FDA's regulations on certain microbial bio-products that will be of interest to potential industrialists Extremophiles is an immensely useful resource for graduate students and researchers in biotechnology, clinical biotechnology, microbiology, and applied microbiology.Contributors xv Introduction xix 1 MOLECULAR EVOLUTION OF EXTREMOPHILES 1 Debamitra Chakravorty, Ashwinee Kumar Shreshtha, V. R. Sarath Babu, and Sanjukta Patra 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Molecular Evolution of Thermophiles 2 1.3 Molecular Evolution of Psychrophiles 4 1.4 Molecular Evolution of Halophiles 6 1.5 Molecular Evolution of Alkaliphiles 7 1.6 Molecular Evolution of Acidophiles 8 1.7 Molecular Evolution of Barophiles 10 1.8 Engineering Extremophiles 12 1.9 Case Studies 17 1.10 Implications of Engineered Extremophiles on Ecology, Environment, and Health 20 1.11 Conclusions and Recommendations 20 2 ATTAINING EXTREMOPHILES AND EXTREMOLYTES: METHODOLOGIES AND LIMITATIONS 29 Debamitra Chakravorty and Sanjukta Patra 2.1 Introduction 29 2.2 Extremophiles: Types and Diversity 30 2.3 Extremolytes 54 2.4 Conclusions 64 3 STRATEGIES FOR THE ISOLATION AND CULTIVATION OF HALOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS 75 Aharon Oren 3.1 Introduction 75 3.2 Thalassohaline and Athalassohaline Hypersaline Environments 76 3.3 Case Studies 79 3.4 The Upper Salinity Limits of Different Types of Energy Generation 85 3.5 Final Comments 88 4 HALOPHILIC PROPERTIES AND THEIR MANIPULATION AND APPLICATION 95 Tsutomu Arakawa, Hiroko Tokunaga, Matsujiro Ishibashi, and Masao Tokunaga 4.1 Introduction 95 4.2 Industrial Applications of Halophilic Organisms and Their Proteins 96 4.3 Extreme and Moderate Halophiles and Their Proteins 98 4.4 Generation of Low-Salt Stable Extreme-Halophilic Proteins 99 4.5 Interconversion of Halophilic and Nonhalophilic Proteins 105 4.6 Soluble Expression of Recombinant Proteins 110 4.7 Natively Unfolded Proteins 113 4.8 Organic Solvent Tolerance 113 5 FEATURES AND APPLICATIONS OF HALOPHILIC ARCHAEA 123 Ximena C. Abrevaya 5.1 Introduction 123 5.2 General Features 124 5.3 Applications of Halophilic Archaea 130 5.4 Concluding Remarks 143 6 BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS OF COLD-ADAPTED BACTERIA 159 Laura Garcia-Descalzo, Alberto Alcazar, Fernando Baquero, and Cristina Cid 6.1 Introduction 159 6.2 Molecular Mechanisms of Adaptation to Cold Environments 162 6.3 Exopolysaccharides 163 6.4 Lipids 164 6.5 Proteins 164 6.6 Biotechnological Applications of Cold-Adapted Enzymes 168 6.7 Biodegradation and Bioremediation in Cold Environments 169 6.8 Conclusions 172 7 ECOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY OF EXTREMOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS, PARTICULARLY ANAEROBIC HERMOPHILES 175 Francesco Canganella 7.1 Introduction 175 7.2 Thermophiles 176 7.3 Acidophiles 187 7.4 Alkaliphiles 191 7.5 Halophiles 193 7.6 Piezophiles 194 8 THE ROLE OF EXTREMOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS AND THEIR BIOPRODUCTS IN FOOD PROCESSING AND PRODUCTION 205 Jane A. Irwin 8.1 Introduction 205 8.2 Enzymes from Extremophiles in Food Processing 206 8.3 Alkaliphiles, Acidophiles, and Piezophiles 217 8.4 Extremophiles in Food Spoilage and Contamination 218 8.5 Extremophiles as Pathogens of Food Species 221 8.6 Conclusions 222 9 EXTREMOPHILES AND THEIR APPLICATION TO BIOFUEL RESEARCH 233 M.P. Taylor, R. Bauer, S. Mackay, M. Tuffin, and D.A. Cowan 9.1 Introduction 233 9.2 Extremophiles and Fuels 235 9.3 Exploiting Extremophilic Enzymes in Biomass Conversion to Biofuel 241 9.4 Conclusions and Future Prospects 249 10 SUSTAINABLE ROLE OF THERMOPHILES IN THE SECOND GENERATION OF ETHANOL PRODUCTION 267 Anuj K. Chandel, Ellen C. Giese, Om V. Singh, and Silvio Silverio da Silva 10.1 Introduction 267 10.2 Thermophilic Cellulases for Deconstruction of the Plant Cell Wall 269 10.3 Ethanol Production at Elevated Temperatures 274 10.4 Future Perspectives and Challenges 281 10.5 Conclusions 283 11 ECOFRIENDLY ASPECTS OF THE USE OF EXTREMOPHILIC ENZYMES IN TEXTILE SUBSTRATES 291 Bipin J. Agrawal and Sandhya Mishra 11.1 Introduction 291 11.2 Biopolymeric Fibers 292 11.3 Extremophilic Enzymes and Their Use in the Textile Industry 293 11.4 Utilization of Extremophilic Enzymes in Textile Wet Processing 297 11.5 Finishing with Extremophilic Enzymes 306 11.6 Role of Enzymes in Textile After-Care 311 11.7 Role of Enzymes in Effluent Treatment of Textiles 314 11.8 Conclusions 315 12 THE USE OF EXTREMOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS IN THE INDUSTRIAL RECOVERY OF METALS 319 Carlos A. Jerez 12.1 Introduction 319 12.2 Biomining Extremophiles and Their Industrial Applications 320 12.3 Molecular Studies in Acidophilic Biomining Microorganisms 322 12.4 Microbial Resistance to Acid and Metals 324 13 BACTERIAL POLYMERS PRODUCED BY EXTREMOPHILES: BIOSYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, AND APPLICATIONS OF EXOPOLYSACCHARIDES 335 Nicolaus Barbara, Anzelmo Gianluca, and Poli Annarita 13.1 Introduction 335 13.2 EPS Produced by Extremophilic Bacteria 336 13.3 Examples of Proposed EPS Biosynthesis from Extremophiles 345 13.4 Physicochemical Investigations for Potential Applications 349 14 BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF EXOPOLYSACCHARIDES PRODUCED BY MICROORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS 357 Ignacio J. Molina, Carmen Ruiz-Ruiz, Emilia Quesada, and Victoria B'ejar 14.1 Introduction 357 14.2 Chemical Composition and Structure of EPSs 358 14.3 Physical Properties of EPSs 358 14.4 Biological Functions of EPSs 359 14.5 Exopolysaccharides Deriving from Extremophilic Organisms 359 14.6 Clinical Applications of EPSs 359 14.7 Exopolysaccharides of Halophilic Microorganisms 361 14.8 Concluding Remarks 362 15 BIOSYNTHESIS OF EXTREMOLYTES: RADIATION RESISTANCE AND BIOTECHNOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS 367 Erin Copeland, Nicholas Choy, Prashant Gabani, and Om V. Singh 15.1 Introduction 367 15.2 Biotechnological Implications of Extremolytes 369 15.3 Fermentative Production of Extremolytes 371 15.4 Commercialization of Extremolytes and Extremozymes 380 15.5 Product Recovery 382 15.6 Conclusions 383 16 SMART THERAPEUTICS FROM EXTREMOPHILES: UNEXPLORED APPLICATIONS AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES 389 Raj Kumar and Ajeet Singh 16.1 Introduction 389 16.2 Extremolytes as Protein Protectants 391 16.3 Extremolytes as Cell Protectants 391 16.4 Novel Therapeutics in the Developmental Stage 393 16.5 Homeland Security and Military Medicine 394 16.6 Technological Gaps in Therapeutic Product Development Using Extremophiles 396 16.7 Conclusions 397 Acknowledgment 398 References 398 Index 403


Szczegóły: Extremophiles - Om V. Singh

Tytuł: Extremophiles
Autor: Om V. Singh
Producent: John Wiley
ISBN: 9781118103005
Rok produkcji: 2012
Ilość stron: 456
Oprawa: Twarda
Waga: 0.99 kg


Recenzje: Extremophiles - Om V. Singh

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Extremophiles

Explores the utility and potential of extremophiles in sustainability and biotechnology Many extremophilic bio-products are already used as life-saving drugs. Until recently, however, the difficulty of working with these microbes has discouraged efforts to develop extremophilic microbes as potential drug reservoirs of the future. Recent technological advances have opened the door to exploring these organisms anew as sources of products that might prove useful in clinical and environmental biotechnology and drug development. Extremophiles features outstanding articles by expert scientists who shed light on broad-ranging areas of progress in the development of smart therapeutics for multiple disease types and products for industrial use. It bridges technological gaps, focusing on critical aspects of extremolytes and the mechanisms regulating their biosynthesis that are relevant to human health and bioenergy, including value-added products of commercial significance as well as other potentially viable products. This groundbreaking guide: Introduces the variety of extremophiles and their extremolytes including extremozymes Provides an overview of the methodologies used to acquire extremophiles Reviews the literature on the diversity of extremophiles Offers tools and criteria for data interpretation of various extremolytes/extremozymes Discusses experimental design problems associated with extremophiles and their therapeutic implications Explores the challenges and possibilities of developing extremolytes for commercial purposes Explains the FDA's regulations on certain microbial bio-products that will be of interest to potential industrialists Extremophiles is an immensely useful resource for graduate students and researchers in biotechnology, clinical biotechnology, microbiology, and applied microbiology.Contributors xv Introduction xix 1 MOLECULAR EVOLUTION OF EXTREMOPHILES 1 Debamitra Chakravorty, Ashwinee Kumar Shreshtha, V. R. Sarath Babu, and Sanjukta Patra 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Molecular Evolution of Thermophiles 2 1.3 Molecular Evolution of Psychrophiles 4 1.4 Molecular Evolution of Halophiles 6 1.5 Molecular Evolution of Alkaliphiles 7 1.6 Molecular Evolution of Acidophiles 8 1.7 Molecular Evolution of Barophiles 10 1.8 Engineering Extremophiles 12 1.9 Case Studies 17 1.10 Implications of Engineered Extremophiles on Ecology, Environment, and Health 20 1.11 Conclusions and Recommendations 20 2 ATTAINING EXTREMOPHILES AND EXTREMOLYTES: METHODOLOGIES AND LIMITATIONS 29 Debamitra Chakravorty and Sanjukta Patra 2.1 Introduction 29 2.2 Extremophiles: Types and Diversity 30 2.3 Extremolytes 54 2.4 Conclusions 64 3 STRATEGIES FOR THE ISOLATION AND CULTIVATION OF HALOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS 75 Aharon Oren 3.1 Introduction 75 3.2 Thalassohaline and Athalassohaline Hypersaline Environments 76 3.3 Case Studies 79 3.4 The Upper Salinity Limits of Different Types of Energy Generation 85 3.5 Final Comments 88 4 HALOPHILIC PROPERTIES AND THEIR MANIPULATION AND APPLICATION 95 Tsutomu Arakawa, Hiroko Tokunaga, Matsujiro Ishibashi, and Masao Tokunaga 4.1 Introduction 95 4.2 Industrial Applications of Halophilic Organisms and Their Proteins 96 4.3 Extreme and Moderate Halophiles and Their Proteins 98 4.4 Generation of Low-Salt Stable Extreme-Halophilic Proteins 99 4.5 Interconversion of Halophilic and Nonhalophilic Proteins 105 4.6 Soluble Expression of Recombinant Proteins 110 4.7 Natively Unfolded Proteins 113 4.8 Organic Solvent Tolerance 113 5 FEATURES AND APPLICATIONS OF HALOPHILIC ARCHAEA 123 Ximena C. Abrevaya 5.1 Introduction 123 5.2 General Features 124 5.3 Applications of Halophilic Archaea 130 5.4 Concluding Remarks 143 6 BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS OF COLD-ADAPTED BACTERIA 159 Laura Garcia-Descalzo, Alberto Alcazar, Fernando Baquero, and Cristina Cid 6.1 Introduction 159 6.2 Molecular Mechanisms of Adaptation to Cold Environments 162 6.3 Exopolysaccharides 163 6.4 Lipids 164 6.5 Proteins 164 6.6 Biotechnological Applications of Cold-Adapted Enzymes 168 6.7 Biodegradation and Bioremediation in Cold Environments 169 6.8 Conclusions 172 7 ECOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY OF EXTREMOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS, PARTICULARLY ANAEROBIC HERMOPHILES 175 Francesco Canganella 7.1 Introduction 175 7.2 Thermophiles 176 7.3 Acidophiles 187 7.4 Alkaliphiles 191 7.5 Halophiles 193 7.6 Piezophiles 194 8 THE ROLE OF EXTREMOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS AND THEIR BIOPRODUCTS IN FOOD PROCESSING AND PRODUCTION 205 Jane A. Irwin 8.1 Introduction 205 8.2 Enzymes from Extremophiles in Food Processing 206 8.3 Alkaliphiles, Acidophiles, and Piezophiles 217 8.4 Extremophiles in Food Spoilage and Contamination 218 8.5 Extremophiles as Pathogens of Food Species 221 8.6 Conclusions 222 9 EXTREMOPHILES AND THEIR APPLICATION TO BIOFUEL RESEARCH 233 M.P. Taylor, R. Bauer, S. Mackay, M. Tuffin, and D.A. Cowan 9.1 Introduction 233 9.2 Extremophiles and Fuels 235 9.3 Exploiting Extremophilic Enzymes in Biomass Conversion to Biofuel 241 9.4 Conclusions and Future Prospects 249 10 SUSTAINABLE ROLE OF THERMOPHILES IN THE SECOND GENERATION OF ETHANOL PRODUCTION 267 Anuj K. Chandel, Ellen C. Giese, Om V. Singh, and Silvio Silverio da Silva 10.1 Introduction 267 10.2 Thermophilic Cellulases for Deconstruction of the Plant Cell Wall 269 10.3 Ethanol Production at Elevated Temperatures 274 10.4 Future Perspectives and Challenges 281 10.5 Conclusions 283 11 ECOFRIENDLY ASPECTS OF THE USE OF EXTREMOPHILIC ENZYMES IN TEXTILE SUBSTRATES 291 Bipin J. Agrawal and Sandhya Mishra 11.1 Introduction 291 11.2 Biopolymeric Fibers 292 11.3 Extremophilic Enzymes and Their Use in the Textile Industry 293 11.4 Utilization of Extremophilic Enzymes in Textile Wet Processing 297 11.5 Finishing with Extremophilic Enzymes 306 11.6 Role of Enzymes in Textile After-Care 311 11.7 Role of Enzymes in Effluent Treatment of Textiles 314 11.8 Conclusions 315 12 THE USE OF EXTREMOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS IN THE INDUSTRIAL RECOVERY OF METALS 319 Carlos A. Jerez 12.1 Introduction 319 12.2 Biomining Extremophiles and Their Industrial Applications 320 12.3 Molecular Studies in Acidophilic Biomining Microorganisms 322 12.4 Microbial Resistance to Acid and Metals 324 13 BACTERIAL POLYMERS PRODUCED BY EXTREMOPHILES: BIOSYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, AND APPLICATIONS OF EXOPOLYSACCHARIDES 335 Nicolaus Barbara, Anzelmo Gianluca, and Poli Annarita 13.1 Introduction 335 13.2 EPS Produced by Extremophilic Bacteria 336 13.3 Examples of Proposed EPS Biosynthesis from Extremophiles 345 13.4 Physicochemical Investigations for Potential Applications 349 14 BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF EXOPOLYSACCHARIDES PRODUCED BY MICROORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS 357 Ignacio J. Molina, Carmen Ruiz-Ruiz, Emilia Quesada, and Victoria B'ejar 14.1 Introduction 357 14.2 Chemical Composition and Structure of EPSs 358 14.3 Physical Properties of EPSs 358 14.4 Biological Functions of EPSs 359 14.5 Exopolysaccharides Deriving from Extremophilic Organisms 359 14.6 Clinical Applications of EPSs 359 14.7 Exopolysaccharides of Halophilic Microorganisms 361 14.8 Concluding Remarks 362 15 BIOSYNTHESIS OF EXTREMOLYTES: RADIATION RESISTANCE AND BIOTECHNOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS 367 Erin Copeland, Nicholas Choy, Prashant Gabani, and Om V. Singh 15.1 Introduction 367 15.2 Biotechnological Implications of Extremolytes 369 15.3 Fermentative Production of Extremolytes 371 15.4 Commercialization of Extremolytes and Extremozymes 380 15.5 Product Recovery 382 15.6 Conclusions 383 16 SMART THERAPEUTICS FROM EXTREMOPHILES: UNEXPLORED APPLICATIONS AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES 389 Raj Kumar and Ajeet Singh 16.1 Introduction 389 16.2 Extremolytes as Protein Protectants 391 16.3 Extremolytes as Cell Protectants 391 16.4 Novel Therapeutics in the Developmental Stage 393 16.5 Homeland Security and Military Medicine 394 16.6 Technological Gaps in Therapeutic Product Development Using Extremophiles 396 16.7 Conclusions 397 Acknowledgment 398 References 398 Index 403

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Cena 553,00 PLN
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Szczegóły: Extremophiles - Om V. Singh

Tytuł: Extremophiles
Autor: Om V. Singh
Producent: John Wiley
ISBN: 9781118103005
Rok produkcji: 2012
Ilość stron: 456
Oprawa: Twarda
Waga: 0.99 kg


Recenzje: Extremophiles - Om V. Singh

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