Chemistry, Process Design, and Safety for the Nitration Industry

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Opis: Chemistry, Process Design, and Safety for the Nitration Industry

This is the third ACS Symposium Series book dealing with nitration, the first two having been published in 1976 and 1996. The nature of this 2013 publication reflects the changes worldwide in process safety management, and geographies of research and manufacturing. The contributions to this book were first presented at the 243rd ACS National Meeting in San Diego, California in March of 2012, in the Industrial and Chemical Engineering Division. Several of the chapters deal with the burgeoning capacity increases in the polyurethane industry, requiring improved methods to nitrate benzene and toluene, to ultimately produce MDI and TDI. Methods to manage waste streams from these nitrations plants are also discussed. There are several chapters on process safety that discuss accident investigation, process redesign, and sensitivity testing of energetic material. Hazards of laboratory and pilot plant nitration studies are addressed. Several of the papers describe considerations which must be taken into account when analyzing nitration reaction samples. These chapters represent practical application of known principles and concepts. Some of the chapters read more like a tutorial than a scientific paper. Those new to nitration will benefit the most from reading this book, but it will serve to remind the experienced of factors to consider when operating a nitration facility.James Dodgen 1921-2010 ; Chester Grelecki 1927-2007 ; Preface ; 1. The Adiabatic Mononitrobenzene Process from the Bench Scale in 1974 to ; a Total World Capacity Approaching 10 Million MTPY in 2012 ; Alfred Guenkel ; 2. Effect of Reaction Conditions on the Formation of Byproducts in the ; Adiabatic Mononitration of Benzene into Mononitrobenzene (MNB) ; Sergio Berretta and Brian Louie ; 3. Adiabatic Nitration for Mononitrotoluene (MNT) Production ; M. Gattrell and B. Louie ; 4. Nitrophenolic By-Products Quantification in the Continuous Benzene ; Nitration Process ; Tiago J. G. Costa, Anabela G. Nogueira, Dulce C. M. Silva, Alejandro F. G. Ribeiro, ; and Cristina M. S. G. Baptista ; 5. Improved Processes for the Recovery of Nitric and Sulfuric Acids from ; Nitration Plants ; Manfred Pertler, Gottfried Dichtl, Ulrich Walter, Theo Hessenius, and ; Joachim Korbach ; 6. Nitration Technology for Aromatics As Described in the Patent Literature ; Johannes Duehr ; 7. Advances in Water Treatment of Effluents fromMononitrobenzene (MNB) ; Production Facilities ; Steven Buchi, Sergio Berretta, and Tony Boyd ; 8. Incorporation of Oxidation Enhancement through Hydrogen Peroxide ; Addition into a Tested Mass Transfer/Reaction Model for an Industrial ; NOx Absorption Process ; Kyle G. Loutet, Andres Mahecha-Botero, Tony Boyd, Steven Buchi, and ; Clive M. H. Brereton ; 9. Bench-Scale and Pilot Plant Nitration Experiments-Practical ; Considerations ; Evan Hobenshield ; 10. Assessment of Chemical Reactivity Hazards for Nitration Reactions and ; Decomposition of Nitro-Compounds ; Robert W. Trebilcock and Seshu Dharmavaram ; 11. Safety Instrumented Systems for Process Safety ; Subodh Medhekar ; 12. Lessons Learned from an Explosion in an Ammonium Nitrate ; Neutralizer ; Roland Huet and Lawrence E. Eiselstein ; 13. Process Design and Operational Controls To Safeguard Strong Nitric Acid ; Recovery Systems ; Thomas L. Guggenheim, Roy R. Odle, and John Pace ; 14. Solubility, Equilibrium, Behavior, and Analytical Characterization of ; Tetranitromethane, Trinitromethane, Methyl Amine, and Ammonia in a ; Nitration Facility ; Roy R. Odle, Thomas L. Guggenheim, and L. Mark DeLong ; 15. Redesign for Safe Operation of a Nitric Acid Recovery Unit ; John Pace and Colin Evans ; 16. Materials Challenges in Strong Nitric and Sulfuric Acid Service ; L. Mark L. Delong ; Editor's Biography ; Indexes ; Author Index ; Subject Index


Szczegóły: Chemistry, Process Design, and Safety for the Nitration Industry

Tytuł: Chemistry, Process Design, and Safety for the Nitration Industry
Producent: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780841228863
Rok produkcji: 2014
Ilość stron: 280
Oprawa: Twarda
Waga: 0.6 kg


Recenzje: Chemistry, Process Design, and Safety for the Nitration Industry

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Chemistry, Process Design, and Safety for the Nitration Industry

This is the third ACS Symposium Series book dealing with nitration, the first two having been published in 1976 and 1996. The nature of this 2013 publication reflects the changes worldwide in process safety management, and geographies of research and manufacturing. The contributions to this book were first presented at the 243rd ACS National Meeting in San Diego, California in March of 2012, in the Industrial and Chemical Engineering Division. Several of the chapters deal with the burgeoning capacity increases in the polyurethane industry, requiring improved methods to nitrate benzene and toluene, to ultimately produce MDI and TDI. Methods to manage waste streams from these nitrations plants are also discussed. There are several chapters on process safety that discuss accident investigation, process redesign, and sensitivity testing of energetic material. Hazards of laboratory and pilot plant nitration studies are addressed. Several of the papers describe considerations which must be taken into account when analyzing nitration reaction samples. These chapters represent practical application of known principles and concepts. Some of the chapters read more like a tutorial than a scientific paper. Those new to nitration will benefit the most from reading this book, but it will serve to remind the experienced of factors to consider when operating a nitration facility.James Dodgen 1921-2010 ; Chester Grelecki 1927-2007 ; Preface ; 1. The Adiabatic Mononitrobenzene Process from the Bench Scale in 1974 to ; a Total World Capacity Approaching 10 Million MTPY in 2012 ; Alfred Guenkel ; 2. Effect of Reaction Conditions on the Formation of Byproducts in the ; Adiabatic Mononitration of Benzene into Mononitrobenzene (MNB) ; Sergio Berretta and Brian Louie ; 3. Adiabatic Nitration for Mononitrotoluene (MNT) Production ; M. Gattrell and B. Louie ; 4. Nitrophenolic By-Products Quantification in the Continuous Benzene ; Nitration Process ; Tiago J. G. Costa, Anabela G. Nogueira, Dulce C. M. Silva, Alejandro F. G. Ribeiro, ; and Cristina M. S. G. Baptista ; 5. Improved Processes for the Recovery of Nitric and Sulfuric Acids from ; Nitration Plants ; Manfred Pertler, Gottfried Dichtl, Ulrich Walter, Theo Hessenius, and ; Joachim Korbach ; 6. Nitration Technology for Aromatics As Described in the Patent Literature ; Johannes Duehr ; 7. Advances in Water Treatment of Effluents fromMononitrobenzene (MNB) ; Production Facilities ; Steven Buchi, Sergio Berretta, and Tony Boyd ; 8. Incorporation of Oxidation Enhancement through Hydrogen Peroxide ; Addition into a Tested Mass Transfer/Reaction Model for an Industrial ; NOx Absorption Process ; Kyle G. Loutet, Andres Mahecha-Botero, Tony Boyd, Steven Buchi, and ; Clive M. H. Brereton ; 9. Bench-Scale and Pilot Plant Nitration Experiments-Practical ; Considerations ; Evan Hobenshield ; 10. Assessment of Chemical Reactivity Hazards for Nitration Reactions and ; Decomposition of Nitro-Compounds ; Robert W. Trebilcock and Seshu Dharmavaram ; 11. Safety Instrumented Systems for Process Safety ; Subodh Medhekar ; 12. Lessons Learned from an Explosion in an Ammonium Nitrate ; Neutralizer ; Roland Huet and Lawrence E. Eiselstein ; 13. Process Design and Operational Controls To Safeguard Strong Nitric Acid ; Recovery Systems ; Thomas L. Guggenheim, Roy R. Odle, and John Pace ; 14. Solubility, Equilibrium, Behavior, and Analytical Characterization of ; Tetranitromethane, Trinitromethane, Methyl Amine, and Ammonia in a ; Nitration Facility ; Roy R. Odle, Thomas L. Guggenheim, and L. Mark DeLong ; 15. Redesign for Safe Operation of a Nitric Acid Recovery Unit ; John Pace and Colin Evans ; 16. Materials Challenges in Strong Nitric and Sulfuric Acid Service ; L. Mark L. Delong ; Editor's Biography ; Indexes ; Author Index ; Subject Index

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Szczegóły: Chemistry, Process Design, and Safety for the Nitration Industry

Tytuł: Chemistry, Process Design, and Safety for the Nitration Industry
Producent: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780841228863
Rok produkcji: 2014
Ilość stron: 280
Oprawa: Twarda
Waga: 0.6 kg


Recenzje: Chemistry, Process Design, and Safety for the Nitration Industry

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