Crystal Growth and Evaluation of Silicon for Vlsi and Ulsi

Crystal Growth and Evaluation of Silicon for Vlsi and Ulsi

  • Producent: Apple
  • Rok produkcji: 2014
  • ISBN: 9781482232813
  • Ilość stron: 430
  • Oprawa: Twarda
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Silicon, as a single-crystal semiconductor, has sparked a revolution in the field of electronics and touched nearly every field of science and technology. Though available abundantly as silica and in various other forms in nature, silicon is difficult to separate from its chemical compounds because of its reactivity. As a solid, silicon is chemically inert and stable, but growing it as a single crystal creates many technological challenges. Crystal Growth and Evaluation of Silicon for VLSI and ULSI is one of the first books to cover the systematic growth of silicon single crystals and the complete evaluation of silicon, from sand to useful wafers for device fabrication. Written for engineers and researchers working in semiconductor fabrication industries, this practical text: * Describes different techniques used to grow silicon single crystals * Explains how grown single-crystal ingots become a complete silicon wafer for integrated-circuit fabrication * Reviews different methods to evaluate silicon wafers to determine suitability for device applications * Analyzes silicon wafers in terms of resistivity and impurity concentration mapping * Examines the effect of intentional and unintentional impurities * Explores the defects found in regular silicon-crystal lattice * Discusses silicon wafer preparation for VLSI and ULSI processing Crystal Growth and Evaluation of Silicon for VLSI and ULSI is an essential reference for different approaches to the selection of the basic silicon-containing compound, separation of silicon as metallurgical-grade pure silicon, subsequent purification, single-crystal growth, and defects and evaluation of the deviations within the grown crystals.Preface About the Author Introduction Silicon: The Semiconductor Why Single Crystals Revolution in Integrated Circuit Fabrication Technology and the Art of Device Miniaturization Use of Silicon as a Semiconductor Silicon Devices for Boolean Applications Integration of Silicon Devices and the Art of Circuit Miniaturization MOS and CMOS Devices for Digital Applications LSI, VLSI, and ULSI Circuits and Applications Silicon for MEMS Applications Summary References Silicon: The Key Material for Integrated Circuit Fabrication Technology Introduction Preparation of Raw Silicon Material Metallurgical-Grade Silicon Purification of Metallurgical-Grade Silicon Ultra-High Pure Silicon for Electronics Application Polycrystalline Silicon Feed for Crystal Growth Summary References Importance of Single Crystals for Integrated Circuit Fabrication Introduction Crystal Structures Different Crystal Structures in Nature Cubic Structures Diamond Crystal Structure Silicon Crystal Structure Silicon Crystals and Atomic Packing Factors Crystal Order and Perfection Crystal Orientations and Planes Influence of Dopants and Impurities in Silicon Crystals Summary References Different Techniques for Growing Single-Crystal Silicon Introduction Bridgman Crystal Growth Technique Czochralski Crystal Growth/Pulling Technique Crucible Choice for Molten Silicon Chamber Temperature Profile Seed Selection for Crystal Pulling Environmental and Ambient Control in the Crystal Chamber Crystal Pull Rate and Seed/Crucible Rotation Dopant Addition for Growing Doped Crystals Methods for Continuous Czochralski Crystal Growth Impurity Segregation between Liquid and Grown Silicon Crystals Crystal Growth Striations Use of a Magnetic Field in the Czochralski Growth Technique Large-Area Silicon Crystals for VLSI and ULSI Applications Post-Growth Thermal Gradient and Crystal Cooling after Pull-Out Float-Zone Crystal Growth Technique Seed Selection Environment and Chamber Ambient Control Heating Mechanisms and RF Coil Shape Crystal Growth Rate and Seed Rotation Dopant Distribution in Growing Crystals Impurity Segregation between Liquid and Grown Silicon Crystals Use of Magnetic Field for Float-Zone Growth Large Area Silicon Crystals and Limitations of Shape and Size Thermal Gradient and Post-Growth Crystal Cooling Zone Refining of Single-Crystal Silicon Other Silicon Crystalline Structures and Growth Techniques Silicon Ribbons Silicon Sheets Silicon Whiskers and Fibers Silicon in Circular and Spherical Shapes Silicon Hollow Tubes Casting of Polycrystalline Silicon for Photovoltaic Applications Summary References From Silicon Ingots to Silicon Wafers Introduction Radial Resistivity Measurements Boule Formation, Identification of Crystal Orientation, and Flats Ingot Slicing Mechanical Lapping of Wafer Slices Edge Profiling of Slices Chemical Etching and Mechanical Damage Removal Chemimechanical Polishing for Planar Wafers Surface Roughness and Overall Wafer Topography Megasonic Cleaning Final Cleaning and Inspection Summary References Evaluation of Silicon Wafers Introduction Acoustic Laser Probing Technique Atomic-Force Microscope Studies on Surfaces Auger Electron Spectroscopic Studies Chemical Staining and Etching Techniques Contactless Characterization Deep-Level Transient Spectroscopy Defect Decoration by Metals Electron Beam and High-Energy Electron Diffraction Studies Flame Emission Spectrometry Four-Point Probe Technique for Resistivity Measurement and Mapping Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Measurements for Impurity Identification Gas Fusion Analysis Hall Mobility Mass Spectra Analysis Minority Carrier Diffusion Length/Lifetime/Surface Photovoltage Optical Methods for Impurity Evaluation Photoluminescence Method for Determining Impurity Concentrations Gamma-Ray Diffractometry Scanning Electron Microscopy for Defect Analysis Scanning Optical Microscope Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer for Impurity Distribution Spreading Resistance and Two-Point Probe Measurement Technique Stress Measurements Transmission Electron Microscopy van der Pauw Resistivity Measurement Technique for Irregular-Shaped Wafers X-Ray Technique for Crystal Perfection and Dislocation Density Summary References Resistivity and Impurity Concentration Mapping of Silicon Wafers Introduction Electrically Active and Inactive Impurities Surface Mapping and Concentration Contours Surface Roughness Mapping on a Complete Wafer Summary References Impurities in Silicon Wafers Effect of Intentional and Unintentional Impurities and Their Influence on Silicon Devices Intentional Dopant Impurities in Silicon Wafers Aluminum Antimony Arsenic Boron Gallium Phosphorus Unintentional Dopant Impurities in Silicon Wafers Carbon Chromium Copper Germanium Gold Helium Hydrogen Iron Nickel Nitrogen Oxygen Tin Other Metallic Impurities Summary References Defects in Silicon Wafers Introduction Impact of Defects in Silicon Devices and Structures Point Defects and Vacancies Line Defects Bulk Defects and Voids Dislocations and Screw Dislocations Swirl Defects Stacking Faults Precipitations Surface Pits/Crystal-Originated Particles Grown Vacancies and Defects Thermal Donors Slips, Cracks, and Shape Irregularities Stress, Bowing, and Warpage Summary References Silicon Wafer Preparation for VLSI and ULSI Processing Introduction Purity of Chemicals Used for Silicon Processing Degreasing of Silicon Wafers Removal of Metallic and Other Impurities Gettering of Metallic Impurities Denuding of Silicon Wafers Neutron Irradiation Argon Annealing of Wafers Hydrogen Annealing of Wafers Final Cleaning, Rinsing, and Wafer Drying Summary References Packing of Silicon Wafers Packing of Fully Processed Blank Silicon Wafers Storage of Wafers and Control of Particulate Contamination Storage of Wafers and Control of Particulate Contamination with Process-Bound Wafers Summary References Index

Szczegóły

Tytuł: Crystal Growth and Evaluation of Silicon for Vlsi and Ulsi

Autor: Golla Eranna

Producent: Apple

ISBN: 9781482232813

Rok produkcji: 2014

Ilość stron: 430

Oprawa: Twarda

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