The Toxicology and Biochemistry of Insecticides, Second Edition

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Opis: The Toxicology and Biochemistry of Insecticides, Second Edition - Simon Yu

Despite their potentially adverse effects on nontarget species and the environment, insecticides remain a necessity in crop protection as well as in the reduction of insect-borne diseases. The Toxicology and Biochemistry of Insecticides provides essential insecticide knowledge required for the effective management of insect pests. Continuing as the sole book in more than two decades to address this multifaceted field, the Second Edition of this highly praised review on insecticide toxicology has been greatly expanded and updated to present the most current information on: * Systemic classification of insecticides * How insecticides function at the molecular level and newly discovered modes of action * Insecticide resistance, molecular mechanisms, fitness costs, reversion, and management of resistance * Various bioassay methods including the interpretation of probit analysis * Molecular mechanisms of insecticide selectivity * Major biochemical mechanisms involved in the transformation of insecticides * Fate of insecticides in the environment and the sublethal effects of insecticides on wildlife * Newly developed insecticides, including the addition of more microbial insecticides in keeping with current integrated pest management (IPM) approaches Incorporating extensive reference lists for further reading, The Toxicology and Biochemistry of Insecticides, Second Edition is an ideal textbook for students of entomology, plant medicine, insecticide toxicology, and related agricultural disciplines. It is also a valuable resource for those involved in insecticide research, environmental toxicology, and crop protection. Praise for the First Edition "... applicable to a diversity of students from entomology, pest management and related agricultural disciplines. ... provides an updated and comprehensive introductory textbook for students of insecticide toxicology that incorporates traditional toxicological concepts, including uptake, mode of action, and principles of xenobiotic metabolism with an up-to-date cataloging of both historically important insecticide classes and novel chemistries and their mode of action. This information provides a solid foundation for developing more complex issues, such as the role of xenobiotic metabolism as it relates to selective toxicity and resistance evolution. ... presents material in an easy-to-read outline that is well organized. ... illustrated with many line drawings and tables providing the reader with ample opportunity to interpret data that enhances understanding of a certain topic. ... This text is a valuable basic reference for students of insecticide toxicology. ... I have recommended the text for my own course and have received positive feedback from a diversity of students." -Blair D. Siegfried, Department of Entomology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA, Florida Entomologist, March 2009 "This is a great book detailing everything you might wish to know about the entomological toxicology, biochemistry, and indeed the physiology, sensitivities and resistance to, mode of action, purpose and range, regulation, and environmental fate, of pesticides-and more besides. The division into 11 chapters is amply signposted in a set of more-than-adequate contents pages. If that should fail you in locating what you are looking for, then the index at the rear will see you right. ... Each chapter flowed nicely into and introduced the next, and the book had a very reasonable style (even the bits on mono-oxygenases). I loved reading about spiracles and their significance (or not) in pesticide absorption. It covered topics in useful depth, but facts were easy to find and were not hidden beneath layers of waffle or arcane language. It would serve as an invaluable reference tool to toxicologists (and agronomists, biochemists, teachers, entomologists, students, and ecologists ...) coming into contact with insecticides." -Tom Holmes, Covance Laboratories Ltd., UK, BTS Newsletter, Summer 2009 "If you are interested in more general aspects of insecticides, the chapters on formulation and the mode of action of insecticides are good, and the section in chapter 5 on probits is one of the best written I have seen." -TC Marrs, Edentox Associates, UK, BTS Newsletter, Winter 2008Preface to the Second Edition Preface to the First Edition Author Need for Pesticides and Their Pattern of Use Introduction Need for Pesticides Food Production World Health Status Pattern of Use Pesticide Economics References Formulation of Pesticides Introduction Types of Formulation Dusts Wettable Powders Emulsifiable Concentrates Suspendable Concentrates or Flowables Water-Soluble Powders Solutions Granules Water-Dispersible Granules Ultralow-Volume Formulations Aerosols Controlled-Release Formulations Baits Nonpesticidal Ingredients of Formulations Solvents Diluents Surfactants Disposal of Pesticide Containers Pesticide Application Equipment References Pesticide Laws and Regulations Introduction Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Registration of Pesticides Classification of Pesticides and Certification of Applicators Other Provisions of FIFRA Pesticide Categories Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act Tolerance Basis for Tolerance Food Quality Protection Act State Laws Enforcement References Classification of Insecticides Introduction Classification of Insecticides Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Insecticides Organophosphates Carbamates Pyrethroids Botanical Insecticides Insect Growth Regulators Neonicotinoids Formamidines Microbial Insecticides Fumigants Inorganic Insecticides Miscellaneous Insecticide Classes Acaricides Insect Repellents References Evaluation of Toxicity Introduction Testing Procedures Tests with Insects Topical Application Injection Method Dipping Method Contact Method (Residual Exposure Method) Fumigation Method Feeding Method Tests with Higher Animals Acute Toxicity Tests Subacute Toxicity and Chronic Toxicity Tests Probit Analysis Source of Variability in Dose-Response Tests Age Sex Rearing Temperature Food Supply Population Density Illumination Use of LDP Lines Appendix References Uptake of Insecticides Introduction Penetration of Insecticides through the Insect Cuticle Structure of Insect Cuticle Movement of Insecticides through the Cuticle Site of Entry Factors Affecting Cuticular Penetration Rates Metabolism of Insecticides in the Cuticle Entry via the Mouth Uptake via the Spiracles References Mode of Action of Insecticides Introduction Insecticides Affecting Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels Background Mode of Action of the DDT Group, Pyrethroids, Indoxacarb, Sabadilla, and Metaflumizone Insecticides Affecting Ryanodine Receptors Insecticides Inhibiting Acetylcholinesterase Background Mode of Action of Organophosphorus and Carbamate Insecticides Insecticides Interfering with Chloride Channels GABA-Gated Chloride Channels Glutamate-Gated Chloride Channels Insecticides That Bind to Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Insecticides Affecting Octopamine Receptors Insecticides Interfering with Respiration Inhibitors of the Mitochondrial Electron Transport System Inhibitors of Oxidative Phosphorylation Insecticides Disrupting Insect Midgut Membranes Bacillus thuringiensis Bacillus sphaericus Mode of Action of Baculovirus Insecticides Insecticides Affecting Chitin Biosynthesis or Cuticle Sclerotization Insecticides Acting as Juvenile Hormone Mimics Insecticides Acting as Ecdysone Agonists or Blocking Molting Hormone Activity Insecticides Causing Protein Degradation and Necrotic Cell Death Insecticides Abrading or Disrupting Insect Cuticle Insecticides Acting as Selective Feeding Blockers Insecticides Causing Suffocation Mode of Action of Acaricides Acaricides Interfering with Respiration Acaricides Interfering with Growth and Development Acaricides Acting as Neurotoxins Mode of Action of Insect Repellents References Principles of Pesticide Metabolism Introduction Phase I Reactions Oxidation Hydrolysis Reduction Phase II Reactions Glucose Conjugation Glucuronic Acid Conjugation Sulfate Conjugation Phosphate Conjugation Amino Acid Conjugation Glutathione Conjugation Metabolic Systems in Plants Metabolic Pathways of Selected Insecticides Carbamates Organophosphates Pyrethroids Chlorinated Hydrocarbons Benzoylphenylureas Juvenoids Neonicotinoids Formamidines Amidinohydrazones Phenylpyrazoles Thiadiazines Triazines Quinazolines Organotins Microbial Insecticides Diacylhydrazines Nereistoxin Analogs Thiocarbamates Organosulfurs Pyrazoles Phthalic Acid Diamides Anthranilic Diamides Tetronic Acids Dichloropropenyl Ethers References Species Differences and Other Phenomena Associated with the Metabolism of Xenobiotics Introduction Species Differences in Detoxification Enzyme Activity Examples of Differences Evolution of Species Differences in Detoxification Effect of Age and Sex on Enzyme Activity Specificity of Detoxification Enzymes Selective Toxicity Synergism and Antagonism Enzyme Induction Induction of Detoxification Enzymes Enzyme Induction as Detoxification Mechanism Insecticide Resistance References Insecticide Resistance Introduction Genetics of Resistance Preadaptation Gene Frequency Dominance and Number of Genes Reversion of Resistance Mechanisms of Resistance Behavioral Resistance Physiological Resistance Interaction Phenomena Cross-Resistance and Multiple Resistance Interaction of Resistance Factors Fitness Costs of Insecticide Resistance Rate of Development of Resistance Frequency of R Alleles Dominance of R Alleles Generation Turnover Population Mobility Persistence of Pesticide Residues Selection Pressure Pattern of Resistance Development Management of Resistance Reducing Resistance Gene Frequency Use of Insecticide Mixtures and Rotations Use of Insecticide Synergists Use of New Pesticides Use of Resistant Predators and Parasites Field Monitoring Use of Transgenic Crops References Pesticides in the Environment Introduction Persistence of Pesticides in Soil Adsorptive Forces Factors Influencing Persistence of Pesticides in Soil Photodegradation of Pesticides Hydrolysis Dechlorination Oxidation Isomerization (Intramolecular Rearrangement Process) Pesticides and the Food Chain Lipid Solubility of Pesticides Metabolic Activity Feeding Habits Behavior and Ecological Niche Sublethal Effects of Pesticides on Wildlife Eggshell Thinning in Birds Endocrine Disruption in Wildlife Biomarkers as Indicators of Pesticide Pollution References Index


Szczegóły: The Toxicology and Biochemistry of Insecticides, Second Edition - Simon Yu

Tytuł: The Toxicology and Biochemistry of Insecticides, Second Edition
Autor: Simon Yu
Producent: Apple
ISBN: 9781482210606
Rok produkcji: 2014
Ilość stron: 380
Oprawa: Twarda
Waga: 0.86 kg


Recenzje: The Toxicology and Biochemistry of Insecticides, Second Edition - Simon Yu

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Przypomnij hasło
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The Toxicology and Biochemistry of Insecticides, Second Edition

  • Producent: Apple
  • Oprawa: Twarda

Despite their potentially adverse effects on nontarget species and the environment, insecticides remain a necessity in crop protection as well as in the reduction of insect-borne diseases. The Toxicology and Biochemistry of Insecticides provides essential insecticide knowledge required for the effective management of insect pests. Continuing as the sole book in more than two decades to address this multifaceted field, the Second Edition of this highly praised review on insecticide toxicology has been greatly expanded and updated to present the most current information on: * Systemic classification of insecticides * How insecticides function at the molecular level and newly discovered modes of action * Insecticide resistance, molecular mechanisms, fitness costs, reversion, and management of resistance * Various bioassay methods including the interpretation of probit analysis * Molecular mechanisms of insecticide selectivity * Major biochemical mechanisms involved in the transformation of insecticides * Fate of insecticides in the environment and the sublethal effects of insecticides on wildlife * Newly developed insecticides, including the addition of more microbial insecticides in keeping with current integrated pest management (IPM) approaches Incorporating extensive reference lists for further reading, The Toxicology and Biochemistry of Insecticides, Second Edition is an ideal textbook for students of entomology, plant medicine, insecticide toxicology, and related agricultural disciplines. It is also a valuable resource for those involved in insecticide research, environmental toxicology, and crop protection. Praise for the First Edition "... applicable to a diversity of students from entomology, pest management and related agricultural disciplines. ... provides an updated and comprehensive introductory textbook for students of insecticide toxicology that incorporates traditional toxicological concepts, including uptake, mode of action, and principles of xenobiotic metabolism with an up-to-date cataloging of both historically important insecticide classes and novel chemistries and their mode of action. This information provides a solid foundation for developing more complex issues, such as the role of xenobiotic metabolism as it relates to selective toxicity and resistance evolution. ... presents material in an easy-to-read outline that is well organized. ... illustrated with many line drawings and tables providing the reader with ample opportunity to interpret data that enhances understanding of a certain topic. ... This text is a valuable basic reference for students of insecticide toxicology. ... I have recommended the text for my own course and have received positive feedback from a diversity of students." -Blair D. Siegfried, Department of Entomology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA, Florida Entomologist, March 2009 "This is a great book detailing everything you might wish to know about the entomological toxicology, biochemistry, and indeed the physiology, sensitivities and resistance to, mode of action, purpose and range, regulation, and environmental fate, of pesticides-and more besides. The division into 11 chapters is amply signposted in a set of more-than-adequate contents pages. If that should fail you in locating what you are looking for, then the index at the rear will see you right. ... Each chapter flowed nicely into and introduced the next, and the book had a very reasonable style (even the bits on mono-oxygenases). I loved reading about spiracles and their significance (or not) in pesticide absorption. It covered topics in useful depth, but facts were easy to find and were not hidden beneath layers of waffle or arcane language. It would serve as an invaluable reference tool to toxicologists (and agronomists, biochemists, teachers, entomologists, students, and ecologists ...) coming into contact with insecticides." -Tom Holmes, Covance Laboratories Ltd., UK, BTS Newsletter, Summer 2009 "If you are interested in more general aspects of insecticides, the chapters on formulation and the mode of action of insecticides are good, and the section in chapter 5 on probits is one of the best written I have seen." -TC Marrs, Edentox Associates, UK, BTS Newsletter, Winter 2008Preface to the Second Edition Preface to the First Edition Author Need for Pesticides and Their Pattern of Use Introduction Need for Pesticides Food Production World Health Status Pattern of Use Pesticide Economics References Formulation of Pesticides Introduction Types of Formulation Dusts Wettable Powders Emulsifiable Concentrates Suspendable Concentrates or Flowables Water-Soluble Powders Solutions Granules Water-Dispersible Granules Ultralow-Volume Formulations Aerosols Controlled-Release Formulations Baits Nonpesticidal Ingredients of Formulations Solvents Diluents Surfactants Disposal of Pesticide Containers Pesticide Application Equipment References Pesticide Laws and Regulations Introduction Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Registration of Pesticides Classification of Pesticides and Certification of Applicators Other Provisions of FIFRA Pesticide Categories Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act Tolerance Basis for Tolerance Food Quality Protection Act State Laws Enforcement References Classification of Insecticides Introduction Classification of Insecticides Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Insecticides Organophosphates Carbamates Pyrethroids Botanical Insecticides Insect Growth Regulators Neonicotinoids Formamidines Microbial Insecticides Fumigants Inorganic Insecticides Miscellaneous Insecticide Classes Acaricides Insect Repellents References Evaluation of Toxicity Introduction Testing Procedures Tests with Insects Topical Application Injection Method Dipping Method Contact Method (Residual Exposure Method) Fumigation Method Feeding Method Tests with Higher Animals Acute Toxicity Tests Subacute Toxicity and Chronic Toxicity Tests Probit Analysis Source of Variability in Dose-Response Tests Age Sex Rearing Temperature Food Supply Population Density Illumination Use of LDP Lines Appendix References Uptake of Insecticides Introduction Penetration of Insecticides through the Insect Cuticle Structure of Insect Cuticle Movement of Insecticides through the Cuticle Site of Entry Factors Affecting Cuticular Penetration Rates Metabolism of Insecticides in the Cuticle Entry via the Mouth Uptake via the Spiracles References Mode of Action of Insecticides Introduction Insecticides Affecting Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels Background Mode of Action of the DDT Group, Pyrethroids, Indoxacarb, Sabadilla, and Metaflumizone Insecticides Affecting Ryanodine Receptors Insecticides Inhibiting Acetylcholinesterase Background Mode of Action of Organophosphorus and Carbamate Insecticides Insecticides Interfering with Chloride Channels GABA-Gated Chloride Channels Glutamate-Gated Chloride Channels Insecticides That Bind to Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Insecticides Affecting Octopamine Receptors Insecticides Interfering with Respiration Inhibitors of the Mitochondrial Electron Transport System Inhibitors of Oxidative Phosphorylation Insecticides Disrupting Insect Midgut Membranes Bacillus thuringiensis Bacillus sphaericus Mode of Action of Baculovirus Insecticides Insecticides Affecting Chitin Biosynthesis or Cuticle Sclerotization Insecticides Acting as Juvenile Hormone Mimics Insecticides Acting as Ecdysone Agonists or Blocking Molting Hormone Activity Insecticides Causing Protein Degradation and Necrotic Cell Death Insecticides Abrading or Disrupting Insect Cuticle Insecticides Acting as Selective Feeding Blockers Insecticides Causing Suffocation Mode of Action of Acaricides Acaricides Interfering with Respiration Acaricides Interfering with Growth and Development Acaricides Acting as Neurotoxins Mode of Action of Insect Repellents References Principles of Pesticide Metabolism Introduction Phase I Reactions Oxidation Hydrolysis Reduction Phase II Reactions Glucose Conjugation Glucuronic Acid Conjugation Sulfate Conjugation Phosphate Conjugation Amino Acid Conjugation Glutathione Conjugation Metabolic Systems in Plants Metabolic Pathways of Selected Insecticides Carbamates Organophosphates Pyrethroids Chlorinated Hydrocarbons Benzoylphenylureas Juvenoids Neonicotinoids Formamidines Amidinohydrazones Phenylpyrazoles Thiadiazines Triazines Quinazolines Organotins Microbial Insecticides Diacylhydrazines Nereistoxin Analogs Thiocarbamates Organosulfurs Pyrazoles Phthalic Acid Diamides Anthranilic Diamides Tetronic Acids Dichloropropenyl Ethers References Species Differences and Other Phenomena Associated with the Metabolism of Xenobiotics Introduction Species Differences in Detoxification Enzyme Activity Examples of Differences Evolution of Species Differences in Detoxification Effect of Age and Sex on Enzyme Activity Specificity of Detoxification Enzymes Selective Toxicity Synergism and Antagonism Enzyme Induction Induction of Detoxification Enzymes Enzyme Induction as Detoxification Mechanism Insecticide Resistance References Insecticide Resistance Introduction Genetics of Resistance Preadaptation Gene Frequency Dominance and Number of Genes Reversion of Resistance Mechanisms of Resistance Behavioral Resistance Physiological Resistance Interaction Phenomena Cross-Resistance and Multiple Resistance Interaction of Resistance Factors Fitness Costs of Insecticide Resistance Rate of Development of Resistance Frequency of R Alleles Dominance of R Alleles Generation Turnover Population Mobility Persistence of Pesticide Residues Selection Pressure Pattern of Resistance Development Management of Resistance Reducing Resistance Gene Frequency Use of Insecticide Mixtures and Rotations Use of Insecticide Synergists Use of New Pesticides Use of Resistant Predators and Parasites Field Monitoring Use of Transgenic Crops References Pesticides in the Environment Introduction Persistence of Pesticides in Soil Adsorptive Forces Factors Influencing Persistence of Pesticides in Soil Photodegradation of Pesticides Hydrolysis Dechlorination Oxidation Isomerization (Intramolecular Rearrangement Process) Pesticides and the Food Chain Lipid Solubility of Pesticides Metabolic Activity Feeding Habits Behavior and Ecological Niche Sublethal Effects of Pesticides on Wildlife Eggshell Thinning in Birds Endocrine Disruption in Wildlife Biomarkers as Indicators of Pesticide Pollution References Index

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Szczegóły: The Toxicology and Biochemistry of Insecticides, Second Edition - Simon Yu

Tytuł: The Toxicology and Biochemistry of Insecticides, Second Edition
Autor: Simon Yu
Producent: Apple
ISBN: 9781482210606
Rok produkcji: 2014
Ilość stron: 380
Oprawa: Twarda
Waga: 0.86 kg


Recenzje: The Toxicology and Biochemistry of Insecticides, Second Edition - Simon Yu

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