Absolute C++

Absolute C++

  • Producent: Pearson Education
  • Rok produkcji: 2012
  • ISBN: 9780273769323
  • Ilość stron: 984
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Opis: Absolute C++ - Walter Savitch

For undergraduate students in Computer Science and Computer Programming courses. Praised for providing an engaging balance of thoughtful examples and explanatory discussion, best-selling author Walt Savitch and contributor Kenrick Mock explain concepts and techniques in a straightforward style using understandable language and code enhanced by a suite of pedagogical tools. Absolute C++ is appropriate for both introductory and intermediate programming courses introducing C++. MyProgrammingLab, Pearson's online homework and assessment tool, is available with this edition.>Contents Chapter 1 C++ Basics 1 1.1 Introduction to C++ 2 Origins of the C++ Language 2 C++ and Object-Oriented Programming 3 The Character of C++ 3 C++ Terminology 4 A Sample C++ Program 4 1.2 Variables, Expressions, and Assignment Statements 6 Identifiers 6 Variables 8 Assignment Statements 10 Pitfall: Uninitialized Variables 12 Tip: Use Meaningful Names 13 More Assignment Statements 13 Assignment Compatibility 14 Literals 15 Escape Sequences 17 Naming Constants 17 Arithmetic Operators and Expressions 19 Integer and Floating-Point Division 21 Pitfall: Division with Whole Numbers 22 Type Casting 22 Increment and Decrement Operators 25 Pitfall: Order of Evaluation 27 1.3 Console Input/Output 28 Output Using cout 28 New Lines in Output 29 Tip: End Each Program with \n or endl 30 Formatting for Numbers with a Decimal Point 31 Output with cerr 32 Input Using cin 32 Tip: Line Breaks in I/O 34 1.4 Program Style 34 Comments 35 1.5 Libraries and Namespaces 35 Libraries and include Directives 36 Namespaces 36 Pitfall: Problems with Library Names 37 Chapter Summary: 38 Answers to Self-Test Exercises 39 Programming Projects 40 Chapter 2 Flow of Control 43 2.1 Boolean Expressions 44 Building Boolean Expressions 44 Pitfall: Strings of Inequalities 45 Evaluating Boolean Expressions 46 Precedence Rules 48 Pitfall: Integer Values Can Be Used as Boolean Values 52 2.2 Branching Mechanisms 54 if-else Statements 54 Compound Statements 56 Pitfall: Using = in Place of == 57 Omitting the else 59 Nested Statements 59 Multiway if-else Statement 59 The switch Statement 60 Pitfall: Forgetting a break in a switch Statement 63 Tip: Use switch Statements for Menus 63 Enumeration Types 64 The Conditional Operator 64 2.3 Loops 65 The while and do-while Statements 66 Increment and Decrement Operators Revisited 68 The Comma Operator 70 The for Statement 72 Tip: Repeat-N-Times Loops 74 Pitfall: Extra Semicolon in a for Statement 75 Pitfall: Infinite Loops 75 The break and continue Statements 78 Nested Loops 81 2.4 Introduction to File Input Reading From a Text File Using ifstream Chapter Summary 81 Answers to Self-Test Exercises 82 Programming Projects 87 Chapter 3 Function Basics 91 3.1 Predefined Functions 92 Predefined Functions That Return a Value 92 Predefined void Functions 97 A Random Number Generator 99 3.2 Programmer-Defined Functions 103 Defining Functions That Return a Value 103 Alternate Form for Function Declarations 106 Pitfall: Arguments in the Wrong Order 107 Pitfall: Use of the Terms Parameter and Argument 107 Functions Calling Functions 107 Example: A Rounding Function 107 Functions That Return a Boolean Value 110 Defining void Functions 111 return Statements in void Functions 113 Preconditions and Postconditions 113 main Is a Function 115 Recursive Functions 116 3.3 Scope Rules 117 Local Variables 117 Procedural Abstraction 120 Global Constants and Global Variables 121 Blocks 124 Nested Scopes 124 Tip: Use Function Calls in Branching and Loop Statements 125 Variables Declared in a for Loop 125 Chapter Summary 126 Answers to Self-Test Exercises 126 Programming Projects 130 Chapter 4 Parameters and Overloading 137 4.1 Parameters 138 Call-by-Value Parameters 138 A First Look at Call-by-Reference Parameters 141 Call-by-Reference Mechanism in Detail 143 Constant Reference Parameters 145 Example: The swapValues Function 146 Tip: Think of Actions, Not Code 147 Mixed Parameter Lists 148 Tip: What Kind of Parameter to Use 149 Pitfall: Inadvertent Local Variables 151 Tip: Choosing Formal Parameter Names 153 Example: Buying Pizza 153 4.2 Overloading and Default Arguments 156 Introduction to Overloading 156 Pitfall: Automatic Type Conversion and Overloading 159 Rules for Resolving Overloading 160 Example: Revised Pizza-Buying Program 162 Default Arguments 164 4.3 Testing and Debugging Functions 166 The assert Macro 166 Stubs and Drivers 167 Chapter Summary 170 Answers to Self-Test Exercises 171 Programming Projects 172 Chapter 5 Arrays 177 5.1 Introduction to Arrays 178 Declaring and Referencing Arrays 178 Tip: Use for Loops with Arrays 181 Pitfall: Array Indexes Always Start with Zero 181 Tip: Use a Defined Constant for the Size of an Array 181 Arrays in Memory 182 Pitfall: Array Index Out of Range 184 Initializing Arrays 184 5.2 Arrays in Functions 187 Indexed Variables as Function Arguments 187 Entire Arrays as Function Arguments 188 The const Parameter Modifier 192 Pitfall: Inconsistent Use of const Parameters 193 Functions That Return an Array 194 Example: Production Graph 194 5.3 Programming with Arrays 200 Partially Filled Arrays 200 Tip: Do Not Skimp on Formal Parameters 200 Example: Searching an Array 203 Example: Sorting an Array 205 5.3 Multidimensional Arrays 210 Multidimensional Array Basics 210 Multidimensional Array Parameters 212 Example: Two-Dimensional Grading Program 213 Chapter Summary 218 Answers to Self-Test Exercises 219 Programming projects 223 Chapter 6 Structures and Classes 231 6.1 Structures 232 Structure Types 234 Pitfall: Forgetting a Semicolon in a Structure Definition 238 Structures as Function Arguments 238 Tip: Use Hierarchical Structures 239 Initializing Structures 242 6.2 Classes 244 Defining Classes and Member Functions 244 Encapsulation 250 Public and Private Members 251 Accessor and Mutator Functions 255 Tip: Separate Interface and Implementation 257 Tip: A Test for Encapsulation 258 Structures versus Classes 259 Tip: Thinking Objects 261 Chapter Summary 261 Answers to Self-Tesr Exercises 262 Programming Projects 264 Chapter 7 Constructors and Other Tools 267 7.1 Constructors 268 Constructor Definitions 268 Pitfall: Constructors with No Arguments 273 Explicit Constructor Calls 275 Tip: Always Include a Default Constructor 275 Example: BankAccount Class 278 Class Type Member Variables 285 7.2 More Tools 288 The const Parameter Modifier 288 Pitfall: Inconsistent Use of const 290 Inline Functions 295 Static Members 297 Nested and Local Class Definitions 300 7.3 Vectors--A Preview of the Standard Template Library 301 Vector Basics 301 Pitfall: Using Square Brackets beyond the Vector Size 303 Tip: Vector Assignment Is Well Behaved 305 Efficiency Issues 305 Chapter Summary 307 Answers to Self-Test Exercises 307 Programming Projects 309 Chapter 8 Operator Overloading, Friends, and References 315 8.1 Basic Operator Overloading 316 Overloading Basics 317 Tip: A Constructor Can Return an Object 322 Returning by const Value 323 Tip: Returning Member Variables of a Class Type 326 Overloading Unary Operators 327 Overloading as Member Functions 328 Tip: A Class Has Access to All Its Objects 330 Overloading Function Application ( ) 331 Pitfall: Overloading &&, ||, and the Comma Operator 331 8.2 Friend Functions and Automatic Type Conversion 332 Constructors for Automatic Type Conversion 332 Pitfall: Member Operators and Automatic Type Conversion 333 Friend Functions 334 Friend Classes 336 Pitfall: Compilers without Friends 338 8.3 References and More Overloaded Operators 339 References 339 Pitfall: Returning a Reference to Certain Member Variables 341 Overloading " and " 341 Tip: What Mode of Returned Value to Use 348 The Assignment Operator 350 Overloading the Increment and Decrement Operators 351 Overloading the Array Operator [ ] 354 Overloading Based on L-Value versus R-Value 356 Chapter Summary 356 Answers to Self-Test Exercises 356 Programming Projects 359 Chapter 9 Strings 363 9.1 An Array Type for Strings 364 C-String Values and C-String Variables 365 Pitfall: Using = and == with C-strings 369 Other Functions in 370 Example: Command-Line Arguments 373 C-String Input and Output 375 9.2 Character Manipulation Tools 378 Character I/O 378 The Member Functions get and put 379 Example: Checking Input Using a Newline Function 381 Pitfall: Unexpected '\n' in Input 383 The putback, peek, and ignore Member Functions 384 Character-Manipulating Functions 387 Pitfall: toupper and tolower Return int Values 389 9.3 The Standard Class string 390 Introduction to the Standard Class string 391 I/O with the Class string 394 Tip: More Versions of getline 397 Pitfall: Mixing cin " variable; and getline 398 String Processing with the Class string 399 Example: Palindrome Testing 403 Converting between string Objects and C-Strings 407 Chapter Summary 407 Answers to Self-Test Exercises 408 Programming Projects 412 Chapter 10 Pointers and Dynamic Arrays 419 10.1 Pointers 420 Pointer Variables 421 Basic Memory Management 429 Pitfall: Dangling Pointers 432 Dynamic Variables and Automatic Variables 432 Tip: Define Pointer Types 433 Pitfall: Pointers as Call-by-Value Parameters 435 Uses for Pointers 437 10.2 Dynamic Arrays 438 Array Variables and Pointer Variables 438 Creating and Using Dynamic Arrays 439 Example: A Function That Returns an Array 443 Pointer Arithmetic 445 Multidimensional Dynamic Arrays 446 10.3 Classes, Pointers, and Dynamic Arrays 449 The -> Operator 449 The this Pointer 450 Overloading the Assignment Operator 451 Example: A Class for Partially Filled Arrays 453 Destructors 462 Copy Constructors 463 Chapter Summary 467 Answers to Self-Test Exercises 468 Programming Projects 470 Chapter 11 Separate Compilation and Namespaces 473 11.1 Separate Compilation 474 Encapsulation Reviewed 475 Header Files and Implementation Files 476 Example: DigitalTime Class 484 Tip: Reusable Components 485 Using #ifndef 485 Tip: Defining Other Libraries 488 11.2 Namespaces 489 Namespaces and using Directives 489 Creating a Namespace 491 Using Declarations 494 Qualifying Names 496 Tip: Choosing a Name for a Namespace 498 Example: A Class Definition in a Namespace 498 Unnamed Namespaces 499 Pitfall: Confusing the Global Namespace and the Unnamed Namespace 506 Tip: Unnamed Namespaces Replace the static Qualifier 507 Tip: Hiding Helping Functions 507 Nested Namespaces 508 Tip: What Namespace Specification Should You Use? 508 Chapter Summary 511 Answers to Self-Test Exercises 512 Programming Projects 513 Chapter 12 Streams and File I/O 519 12.1 I/O Streams 521 File I/O 521 Pitfall: Restrictions on Stream Variables 526 Appending to a File 526 Tip: Another Syntax for Opening a File 528 Tip: Check That a File Was Opened Successfully 530 Character I/O 532 Checking for the End of a File 533 12.2 Tools for Stream I/O 537 File Names as Input 537 Formatting Output with Stream Functions 538 Manipulators 542 Saving Flag Settings 543 More Output Stream Functions 544 Example: Cleaning Up a File Format 546 Example: Editing a Text File 548 12.3 Stream Hierarchies: A Preview of Inheritance 551 Inheritance among Stream Classes 551 Example: Another newLine Function 553 Parsing Strings with the stringstream Class 12.4 Random Access to Files 557 Chapter Summary 559 Answers to Self-Test Exercises 559 Programming Projects 562 Chapter 13 Recursion 571 13.1 Recursive void Functions 573 Example: Vertical Numbers 573 Tracing a Recursive Call 576 A Closer Look at Recursion 579 Pitfall: Infinite Recursion 580 Stacks for Recursion 582 Pitfall: Stack Overflow 583 Recursion versus Iteration 584 13.2 Recursive Functions That Return a Value 585 General Form for a Recursive Function That Returns a Value 585 Example: Another Powers Function 586 Mutual Recursion 13.3 Thinking Recursively 591 Recursive Design Techniques 591 Binary Search 592 Coding 594 Checking The Recursion 598 Efficiency 598 Chapter Summary 600 Answers to Self-Test Exercises 601 Programming Projects 605 Chapter 14 Inheritance 609 14.1 Inheritance Basics 610 Derived Classes 610 Constructors in Derived Classes 620 Pitfall: Use of Private Member Variables from the Base Class 622 Pitfall: Private Member Functions Are Effectively Not Inherited 624 The protected Qualifier 624 Redefinition of Member Functions 627 Redefining versus Overloading 628 Access to a Redefined Base Function 630 Functions That Are Not Inherited 631 14.2 Programming with Inheritance 632 Assignment Operators and Copy Constructors in Derived Classes 632 Destructors in Derived Classes 633 Example: Partially Filled Array with Backup 634 Pitfall: Same Object on Both Sides of the Assignment Operator 643 Example: Alternate Implementation of PFArrayDBak 643 Tip: A Class Has Access to Private Members of All Objects of the Class 646 Tip: "Is a" versus "Has a" 646 Protected and Private Inheritance 647 Multiple Inheritance 648 Chapter Summary 649 Answers to Self-Test Exercises 649 Programming Projects 651 Chapter 15 Polymorphism and Virtual Functions 657 15.1 Virtual Function Basics 658 Late Binding 658 Virtual Functions in C++ 659 Tip: The Virtual Property Is Inherited 666 Tip: When to Use a Virtual Function 666 Pitfall: Omitting the Definition of a Virtual Member Function 667 Abstract Classes and Pure Virtual Functions 667 Example: An Abstract Class 669 15.2 Pointers and Virtual Functions 671 Virtual Functions and Extended Type Compatibility 671 Pitfall: The Slicing Problem 675 Tip: Make Destructors Virtual 676 Downcasting and Upcasting 677 How C++ Implements Virtual Functions 678 Chapter Summary 680 Answers to Self-Test Exercises 681 Programming Projects 682 Chapter 16 Templates 687 16.1 Function Templates 688 Syntax for Function Templates 690 Pitfall: Compiler Complications 693 Tip: How to Define Templates 694 Example: A Generic Sorting Function 695 Pitfall: Using a Template with an Inappropriate Type 700 16.1 Class Templates 702 Syntax for Class Templates 703 Example: An Array Template Class 707 The vector and basic_string Templates 713 16.3 Templates and Inheritance 713 Example: Template Class for a Partially Filled Array with Backup 714 Chapter Summary 720 Answers to Self-Test Exercises 720 Programming Projects 723 Chapter 17 Linked Data Structures 725 17.1 Nodes and Linked Lists 727 Nodes 727 Linked Lists 732 Inserting a Node at the Head of a List 734 Pitfall: Losing Nodes 737 Inserting and Removing Nodes Inside a List 737 Pitfall: Using the Assignment Operator with Dynamic Data Structures 741 Searching a Linked List 742 Doubly Linked Lists 744 Adding a Node to a Doubly Linked List 746 Deleting a Node from a Doubly Linked List 748 Example: A Generic Sorting Template Version of Linked List Tools 753 17.2 Linked List Applications 757 Example: A Stack Template Class 757 Example: A Queue Template Class 764 Tip: A Comment on Namespaces 767 Friend Classes and Similar Alternatives 768 Example: Hash Tables with Chaining 771 Efficiency of Hash Tables 777 Example: A Set Template Class 778 Efficiency of Sets Using Linked Lists 784 17.3 Iterators 785 Pointers as Iterators 786 Iterator Classes 786 Example: An Iterator Class 788 17.4 Trees 974 Tree Properties 795 Example: A Tree Template Class 797 Chapter Summary 802 Answers to Self-Test Exercises 803 Programming Projects 812 Chapter 18 Exception Handling 819 18.1 Exception Handling Basics 821 A Toy Example of Exception Handling 821 Defining Your Own Exception Classes 830 Multiple Throws and Catches 830 Pitfall: Catch the More Specific Exception First 834 Tip: Exception Classes Can Be Trivial 835 Throwing an Exception in a Function 835 Exception Specification 837 Pitfall: Exception Specification in Derived Classes 839 18.2 Programming Techniques for Exception Handling 840 When to Throw an Exception 841 Pitfall: Uncaught Exceptions 842 Pitfall: Nested try-catch Blocks 843 Pitfall: Overuse of Exceptions 843 Exception Class Hierarchies 844 Testing for Available Memory 844 Rethrowing an Exception 845 Chapter Summary 845 Answers to Self-Test Exercises 845 Programming Projects 847 Chapter 19 Standard Template Library 851 19.1 Iterators 853 Iterator Basics 853 Pitfall: Compiler Problems 858 Kinds of Iterators 859 Constant and Mutable Iterators 862 Reverse Iterators 864 Other Kinds of Iterators 865 19.2 Containers 86ontainers 866 Pitfall: Iterators and Removing Elements 872 Tip: Type Definitions in Containers 872 The Container Adapters stack and queue 872 Pitfall: Underlying Containers 873 The Associative Containers set and map 876 Efficiency 881 19.3 Generic Algorithms 883 Running Times and Big-O Notation 884 Container Access Running Times 888 Nonmodifying Sequence Algorithms 889 Modifying Sequence Algorithms 894 Set Algorithms 895 Sorting Algorithms 897 Chapter Summary 897 Answers to Self-Test Exercises 898 Programming Projects 900 Chapter 20 Patterns and UML 907 20.1 Patterns 908 Adapter Pattern 909 The Model-View-Controller Pattern 909 Example: A Sorting Pattern 911 Efficiency of the Sorting Pattern 917 Tip: Pragmatics and Patterns 918 Pattern Formalism 919 UML 919 History of UML 920 UML Class Diagrams 920 Class Interactions 921 Chapter Summary 921 Answers to Self-Test Exercises 922 Programming Projects 923 Appendix 1 C++ Keywords 927 Appendix 2 Precedence of Operators 929 Appendix 3 The ASCII Character Set 931 Appendix 4 Some Library Functions 933 Appendix 5 Old and New Header Files 941 Index 945


Szczegóły: Absolute C++ - Walter Savitch

Tytuł: Absolute C++
Autor: Walter Savitch
Producent: Pearson Education
ISBN: 9780273769323
Rok produkcji: 2012
Ilość stron: 984
Waga: 1.26 kg


Recenzje: Absolute C++ - Walter Savitch

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