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Opis: The Ruby Way - Russ Olsen, Hal Fulton, Andre Arko

For more than a decade, Ruby developers have turned to The Ruby Way for reliable "how-to" guidance on effective Ruby programming. Now, Hal Fulton and Andre Arko have thoroughly updated this classic guide to cover new language enhancements and developers' experiences through Ruby 2.1. The new edition illuminates Ruby 2.1 through 400+ examples, each answering the question: "How do I do this in Ruby?" For each example, they present both a task description and realistic technical constraints. Next, they walk step-by-step through presenting one good solution, offering detailed explanations to promote deeper understanding. Conveniently organized by topic, The Ruby Way, Third Edition makes it easier than ever to find the specific solution you want-and to write better code by reflecting Ruby's unique philosophy and spirit. Coverage includes * Ruby 2.1 overview: terminology, philosophy, and basic principles * Best practices for strings and regular expressions * Efficiently internationalizing your code * Performing calculations (including trigonometry, calculus, statistics, and time/date calculations) * Working with "Rubyesque" objects such as symbols and ranges * Using arrays, hashes, stacks, queues, trees, graphs, and other data structures * Efficiently storing data with YAML, JSON, and SQLite3 * Leveraging object-oriented and dynamic features, from multiple constructors to program inspection * Building GUIs with Shoes 4, Ruby/Tk, Ruby/GTK3, QtRuby, and other toolkits * Improving thread performance by understanding Ruby's synchronization methods and avoiding its pitfalls * Automating system administration with Ruby * Data formats: JSON, XML, RSS, Atom, RMagick, PDF, and more * Testing and debugging with RSpec, Minitest, Cucumber, byebug, and pry * Measuring Ruby program performance * Packaging and distributing code, and managing dependencies with Bundler * Network programming: clients, time servers, POP, SMTP, IMAP, Open-URI * Web applications: HTTP servers, Rails, Sinatra, HTML generation, and more * Writing distributed Ruby software with drb * Choosing modern development tools that maximize your productivity All source code for this book may be downloaded at www. rubyhacker.com. informit.com/aw informit.com/ruby rubyhacker.com/therubyway therubyway.io Praise for The Ruby Way, Third Edition "Sticking to its tried and tested formula of cutting right to the techniques the modern day Rubyist needs to know, the latest edition of The Ruby Way keeps its strong reputation going for the latest generation of the Ruby language." Peter Cooper Editor of Ruby Weekly "The authors' excellent work and meticulous attention to detail continues in this latest update; this book remains an outstanding reference for the beginning Ruby programmer- as well as the seasoned developer who needs a quick refresh on Ruby. Highly recommended for anyone interested in Ruby programming." Kelvin Meeks Enterprise Architect Praise for Previous Editions of The Ruby Way "Among other things, this book excels at explaining metaprogramming, one of the most interesting aspects of Ruby. Many of the early ideas for Rails were inspired by the first edition, especially what is now Chapter 11. It puts you on a rollercoaster ride between 'How could I use this?' and 'This is so cool!' Once you get on that rollercoaster, there's no turning back." David Heinemeier Hansson Creator of Ruby on Rails, Founder at Basecamp "The appearance of the second edition of this classic book is an exciting event for Rubyists-and for lovers of superb technical writing in general. Hal Fulton brings a lively erudition and an engaging, lucid style to bear on a thorough and meticulously exact exposition of Ruby. You palpably feel the presence of a teacher who knows a tremendous amount and really wants to help you know it too." David Alan Black Author of The Well-Grounded Rubyist "This is an excellent resource for gaining insight into how and why Ruby works. Assomeone who has worked with Ruby for several years, I still found it full of new tricks and techniques. It's accessible both as a straight read and as a reference that one can dip into and learn something new." Chet Hendrickson Agile software pioneer "Ruby's a wonderful language-but sometimes you just want to get something done. Hal's book gives you the solution and teaches a good bit about why that solution is good Ruby." Martin Fowler Chief Scientist, ThoughtWorks Author of Patterns of Enterprise Application ArchitectureForeword xxiv Acknowledgments xxviii About the Authors xxxii Introduction xxxiii 1 Ruby in Review 1 1.1 An Introduction to Object Orientation 2 1.1.1 What Is an Object? 2 1.1.2 Inheritance 4 1.1.3 Polymorphism 6 1.1.4 A Few More Terms 7 1.2 Basic Ruby Syntax and Semantics 8 1.2.1 Keywords and Identifiers 9 1.2.2 Comments and Embedded Documentation 10 1.2.3 Constants, Variables, and Types 11 1.2.4 Operators and Precedence 13 1.2.5 A Sample Program 14 1.2.6 Looping and Branching 17 1.2.7 Exceptions 22 1.3 OOP in Ruby 25 1.3.1 Objects 26 1.3.2 Built-in Classes 26 1.3.3 Modules and Mixins 28 1.3.4 Creating Classes 29 1.3.5 Methods and Attributes 34 1.4 Dynamic Aspects of Ruby 36 1.4.1 Coding at Runtime 36 1.4.2 Reflection 38 1.4.3 Missing Methods 40 1.4.4 Garbage Collection 40 1.5 Training Your Intuition: Things to Remember 41 1.5.1 Syntax Issues 41 1.5.2 Perspectives in Programming 44 1.5.3 Ruby's case Statement 47 1.5.4 Rubyisms and Idioms 50 1.5.5 Expression Orientation and Other Miscellaneous Issues 57 1.6 Ruby Jargon and Slang 59 1.7 Conclusion 62 2 Working with Strings 63 2.1 Representing Ordinary Strings 64 2.2 Representing Strings with Alternate Notations 65 2.3 Using Here-Documents 65 2.4 Finding the Length of a String 67 2.5 Processing a Line at a Time 68 2.6 Processing a Character or Byte at a Time 68 2.7 Performing Specialized String Comparisons 69 2.8 Tokenizing a String 71 2.9 Formatting a String 73 2.10 Using Strings as IO Objects 74 2.11 Controlling Uppercase and Lowercase 74 2.12 Accessing and Assigning Substrings 75 2.13 Substituting in Strings 78 2.14 Searching a String 79 2.15 Converting Between Characters and ASCII Codes 80 2.16 Implicit and Explicit Conversion 80 2.17 Appending an Item onto a String 83 2.18 Removing Trailing Newlines and Other Characters 83 2.19 Trimming Whitespace from a String 84 2.20 Repeating Strings 85 2.21 Embedding Expressions within Strings 85 2.22 Delayed Interpolation of Strings 86 2.23 Parsing Comma-Separated Data 86 2.24 Converting Strings to Numbers (Decimal and Otherwise) 87 2.25 Encoding and Decoding rot13 Text 89 2.26 Encrypting Strings 90 2.27 Compressing Strings 91 2.28 Counting Characters in Strings 92 2.29 Reversing a String 92 2.30 Removing Duplicate Characters 93 2.31 Removing Specific Characters 93 2.32 Printing Special Characters 93 2.33 Generating Successive Strings 94 2.34 Calculating a 32-Bit CRC 94 2.35 Calculating the SHA-256 Hash of a String 95 2.36 Calculating the Levenshtein Distance Between Two Strings 96 2.37 Encoding and Decoding Base64 Strings 98 2.38 Expanding and Compressing Tab Characters 98 2.39 Wrapping Lines of Text 99 2.40 Conclusion 100 3 Working with Regular Expressions 101 3.1 Regular Expression Syntax 102 3.2 Compiling Regular Expressions 104 3.3 Escaping Special Characters 105 3.4 Using Anchors 105 3.5 Using Quantifiers 106 3.6 Positive and Negative Lookahead 109 3.7 Positive and Negative Lookbehind 110 3.8 Accessing Backreferences 111 3.9 Named Matches 114 3.10 Using Character Classes 116 3.11 Extended Regular Expressions 118 3.12 Matching a Newline with a Dot 119 3.13 Using Embedded Options 119 3.14 Using Embedded Subexpressions 120 3.14.1 Recursion in Regular Expressions 121 3.15 A Few Sample Regular Expressions 122 3.15.1 Matching an IP Address 122 3.15.2 Matching a Keyword-Value Pair 123 3.15.3 Matching Roman Numerals 124 3.15.4 Matching Numeric Constants 125 3.15.5 Matching a Date/Time String 125 3.15.6 Detecting Doubled Words in Text 126 3.15.7 Matching All-Caps Words 127 3.15.8 Matching Version Numbers 127 3.15.9 A Few Other Patterns 127 3.16 Conclusion 128 4 Internationalization in Ruby 129 4.1 Background and Terminology 131 4.2 Working with Character Encodings 135 4.2.1 Normalization 136 4.2.2 Encoding Conversions 139 4.2.3 Transliteration 141 4.2.4 Collation 141 4.3 Translations 144 4.3.1 Defaults 146 4.3.2 Namespaces 147 4.3.3 Interpolation 148 4.3.4 Pluralization 149 4.4 Localized Formatting 151 4.4.1 Dates and Times 151 4.4.2 Numbers 152 4.4.3 Currencies 153 4.5 Conclusion 153 5 Performing Numerical Calculations 155 5.1 Representing Numbers in Ruby 156 5.2 Basic Operations on Numbers 157 5.3 Rounding Floating Point Values 158 5.4 Comparing Floating Point Numbers 160 5.5 Formatting Numbers for Output 162 5.6 Formatting Numbers with Commas 162 5.7 Working with Very Large Integers 163 5.8 Using BigDecimal 163 5.9 Working with Rational Values 166 5.10 Matrix Manipulation 167 5.11 Working with Complex Numbers 171 5.12 Using mathn 172 5.13 Finding Prime Factorization, GCD, and LCM 173 5.14 Working with Prime Numbers 174 5.15 Implicit and Explicit Numeric Conversion 175 5.16 Coercing Numeric Values 176 5.17 Performing Bit-Level Operations on Numbers 177 5.18 Performing Base Conversions 179 5.19 Finding Cube Roots, Fourth Roots, and So On 180 5.20 Determining the Architecture's Byte Order 181 5.21 Numerical Computation of a Definite Integral 182 5.22 Trigonometry in Degrees, Radians, and Grads 183 5.23 Finding Logarithms with Arbitrary Bases 184 5.24 Finding the Mean, Median, and Mode of a Data Set 185 5.25 Variance and Standard Deviation 187 5.26 Finding a Correlation Coefficient 187 5.27 Generating Random Numbers 189 5.28 Caching Functions with Memoization 190 5.29 Conclusion 191 6 Symbols and Ranges 193 6.1 Symbols 193 6.1.1 Symbols as Enumerations 195 6.1.2 Symbols as Metavalues 196 6.1.3 Symbols, Variables, and Methods 197 6.1.4 Converting to/from Symbols 197 6.2 Ranges 199 6.2.1 Open and Closed Ranges 199 6.2.2 Finding Endpoints 200 6.2.3 Iterating Over Ranges 200 6.2.4 Testing Range Membership 201 6.2.5 Converting to Arrays 202 6.2.6 Backward Ranges 202 6.2.7 The Flip-Flop Operator 203 6.2.8 Custom Ranges 206 6.3 Conclusion 209 7 Working with Times and Dates 211 7.1 Determining the Current Time 212 7.2 Working with Specific Times (Post-Epoch) 212 7.3 Determining the Day of the Week 214 7.4 Determining the Date of Easter 215 7.5 Finding the Nth Weekday in a Month 215 7.6 Converting Between Seconds and Larger Units 217 7.7 Converting to and from the Epoch 217 7.8 Working with Leap Seconds: Don't! 218 7.9 Finding the Day of the Year 219 7.10 Validating a Date or Time 219 7.11 Finding the Week of the Year 220 7.12 Detecting Leap Years 221 7.13 Obtaining the Time Zone 222 7.14 Working with Hours and Minutes Only 222 7.15 Comparing Time Values 223 7.16 Adding Intervals to Time Values 223 7.17 Computing the Difference in Two Time Values 224 7.18 Working with Specific Dates (Pre-Epoch) 224 7.19 Time, Date, and DateTime 225 7.20 Parsing a Date or Time String 225 7.21 Formatting and Printing Time Values 226 7.22 Time Zone Conversions 227 7.23 Determining the Number of Days in a Month 228 7.24 Dividing a Month into Weeks 229 7.25 Conclusion 230 8 Arrays, Hashes, and Other Enumerables 231 8.1 Working with Arrays 232 8.1.1 Creating and Initializing an Array 232 8.1.2 Accessing and Assigning Array Elements 233 8.1.3 Finding an Array's Size 235 8.1.4 Comparing Arrays 235 8.1.5 Sorting an Array 237 8.1.6 Selecting from an Array by Criteria 240 8.1.7 Using Specialized Indexing Functions 242 8.1.8 Implementing a Sparse Matrix 244 8.1.9 Using Arrays as Mathematical Sets 244 8.1.10 Randomizing an Array 248 8.1.11 Using Multidimensional Arrays 249 8.1.12 Finding Elements in One Array But Not Another 250 8.1.13 Transforming or Mapping Arrays 250 8.1.14 Removing nil Values from an Array 251 8.1.15 Removing Specific Array Elements 251 8.1.16 Concatenating and Appending onto Arrays 253 8.1.17 Using an Array as a Stack or Queue 254 8.1.18 Iterating over an Array 254 8.1.19 Interposing Delimiters to Form a String 255 8.1.20 Reversing an Array 256 8.1.21 Removing Duplicate Elements from an Array 256 8.1.22 Interleaving Arrays 256 8.1.23 Counting Frequency of Values in an Array 257 8.1.24 Inverting an Array to Form a Hash 257 8.1.25 Synchronized Sorting of Multiple Arrays 258 8.1.26 Establishing a Default Value for New Array Elements 259 8.2 Working with Hashes 260 8.2.1 Creating a New Hash 260 8.2.2 Specifying a Default Value for a Hash 261 8.2.3 Accessing and Adding Key-Value Pairs 262 8.2.4 Deleting Key-Value Pairs 264 8.2.5 Iterating Over a Hash 264 8.2.6 Inverting a Hash 265 8.2.7 Detecting Keys and Values in a Hash 265 8.2.8 Extracting Hashes into Arrays 266 8.2.9 Selecting Key-Value Pairs by Criteria 266 8.2.10 Sorting a Hash 267 8.2.11 Merging Two Hashes 268 8.2.12 Creating a Hash from an Array 268 8.2.13 Finding Difference or Intersection of Hash Keys 268 8.2.14 Using a Hash as a Sparse Matrix 269 8.2.15 Implementing a Hash with Duplicate Keys 270 8.2.16 Other Hash Operations 273 8.3 Enumerables in General 273 8.3.1 The inject Method 274 8.3.2 Using Quantifiers 275 8.3.3 The partition Method 276 8.3.4 Iterating by Groups 277 8.3.5 Converting to Arrays or Sets 278 8.3.6 Using Enumerator Objects 278 8.4 More on Enumerables 280 8.4.1 Searching and Selecting 280 8.4.2 Counting and Comparing 281 8.4.3 Iterating 282 8.4.4 Extracting and Converting 283 8.4.5 Lazy Enumerators 284 8.5 Conclusion 285 9 More Advanced Data Structures 287 9.1 Working with Sets 288 9.1.1 Simple Set Operations 288 9.1.2 More Advanced Set Operations 290 9.2 Working with Stacks and Queues 291 9.2.1 Implementing a Stricter Stack 293 9.2.2 Detecting Unbalanced Punctuation in Expressions 294 9.2.3 Understanding Stacks and Recursion 295 9.2.4 Implementing a Stricter Queue 297 9.3 Working with Trees 298 9.3.1 Implementing a Binary Tree 298 9.3.2 Sorting Using a Binary Tree 300 9.3.3 Using a Binary Tree as a Lookup Table 302 9.3.4 Converting a Tree to a String or Array 303 9.4 Working with Graphs 304 9.4.1 Implementing a Graph as an Adjacency Matrix 304 9.4.2 Determining Whether a Graph Is Fully Connected 307 9.4.3 Determining Whether a Graph Has an Euler Circuit 308 9.4.4 Determining Whether a Graph Has an Euler Path 309 9.4.5 Graph Tools in Ruby 310 9.5 Conclusion 310 10 I/O and Data Storage 311 10.1 Working with Files and Directories 313 10.1.1 Opening and Closing Files 313 10.1.2 Updating a File 314 10.1.3 Appending to a File 315 10.1.4 Random Access to Files 315 10.1.5 Working with Binary Files 316 10.1.6 Locking Files 318 10.1.7 Performing Simple I/O 318 10.1.8 Performing Buffered and Unbuffered I/O 320 10.1.9 Manipulating File Ownership and Permissions 321 10.1.10 Retrieving and Setting Timestamp Information 323 10.1.11 Checking File Existence and Size 325 10.1.12 Checking Special File Characteristics 326 10.1.13 Working with Pipes 328 10.1.14 Performing Special I/O Operations 329 10.1.15 Using Nonblocking I/O 330 10.1.16 Using readpartial 331 10.1.17 Manipulating Pathnames 331 10.1.18 Using the Pathname Class 333 10.1.19 Command-Level File Manipulation 334 10.1.20 Grabbing Characters from the Keyboard 336 10.1.21 Reading an Entire File into Memory 336 10.1.22 Iterating Over a File by Lines 337 10.1.23 Iterating Over a File by Byte or Character 337 10.1.24 Treating a String As a File 338 10.1.25 Copying a Stream 339 10.1.26 Working with Character Encodings 339 10.1.27 Reading Data Embedded in a Program 339 10.1.28 Reading Program Source 340 10.1.29 Working with Temporary Files 340 10.1.30 Changing and Setting the Current Directory 341 10.1.31 Changing the Current Root 342 10.1.32 Iterating Over Directory Entries 342 10.1.33 Getting a List of Directory Entries 342 10.1.34 Creating a Chain of Directories 342 10.1.35 Deleting a Directory Recursively 343 10.1.36 Finding Files and Directories 343 10.2 Higher-Level Data Access 344 10.2.1 Simple Marshaling 345 10.2.2 "Deep Copying" with Marshal 346 10.2.3 More Complex Marshaling 346 10.2.4 Marshaling with YAML 347 10.2.5 Persisting Data with JSON 349 10.2.6 Working with CSV Data 350 10.2.7 SQLite3 for SQL Data Storage 352 10.3 Connecting to External Data Stores 353 10.3.1 Connecting to MySQL Databases 354 10.3.2 Connecting to PostgreSQL Databases 356 10.3.3 Object-Relational Mappers (ORMs) 358 10.3.4 Connecting to Redis Data Stores 359 10.4 Conclusion 360 11 OOP and Dynamic Features in Ruby 361 11.1 Everyday OOP Tasks 362 11.1.1 Using Multiple Constructors 362 11.1.2 Creating Instance Attributes 364 11.1.3 Using More Elaborate Constructors 366 11.1.4 Creating Class-Level Attributes and Methods 368 11.1.5 Inheriting from a Superclass 372 11.1.6 Testing Classes of Objects 374 11.1.7 Testing Equality of Objects 377 11.1.8 Controlling Access to Methods 378 11.1.9 Copying an Object 381 11.1.10 Using initialize_copy 383 11.1.11 Understanding allocate 384 11.1.12 Working with Modules 384 11.1.13 Transforming or Converting Objects 388 11.1.14 Creating Data-Only Classes (Structs) 390 11.1.15 Freezing Objects 391 11.1.16 Using tap in Method Chaining 393 11.2 More Advanced Techniques 394 11.2.1 Sending an Explicit Message to an Object 394 11.2.2 Specializing an Individual Object 396 11.2.3 Nesting Classes and Modules 399 11.2.4 Creating Parametric Classes 400 11.2.5 Storing Code as Proc Objects 403 11.2.6 Storing Code as Method Objects 405 11.2.7 Using Symbols as Blocks 406 11.2.8 How Module Inclusion Works 406 11.2.9 Detecting Default Parameters 409 11.2.10 Delegating or Forwarding 409 11.2.11 Defining Class-Level Readers and Writers 412 11.2.12 Working in Advanced Programming Disciplines 414 11.3 Working with Dynamic Features 416 11.3.1 Evaluating Code Dynamically 416 11.3.2 Retrieving a Constant by Name 418 11.3.3 Retrieving a Class by Name 418 11.3.4 Using define_method 419 11.3.5 Obtaining Lists of Defined Entities 423 11.3.6 Removing Definitions 425 11.3.7 Handling References to Nonexistent Constants 427 11.3.8 Handling Calls to Nonexistent Methods 429 11.3.9 Improved Security with taint 430 11.3.10 Defining Finalizers for Objects 432 11.4 Program Introspection 433 11.4.1 Traversing the Object Space 434 11.4.2 Examining the Call Stack 435 11.4.3 Tracking Changes to a Class or Object Definition 435 11.4.4 Monitoring Program Execution 439 11.5 Conclusion 441 12 Graphical Interfaces for Ruby 443 12.1 Shoes 4 444 12.1.1 Starting Out with Shoes 444 12.1.2 An Interactive Button 445 12.1.3 Text and Input 446 12.1.4 Layout 448 12.1.5 Images and Shapes 450 12.1.6 Events 450 12.1.7 Other Notes 451 12.2 Ruby/Tk 452 12.2.1 Overview 452 12.2.2 A Simple Windowed Application 453 12.2.3 Working with Buttons 455 12.2.4 Working with Text Fields 459 12.2.5 Working with Other Widgets 463 12.2.6 Other Notes 467 12.3 Ruby/GTK3 467 12.3.1 Overview 467 12.3.2 A Simple Windowed Application 468 12.3.3 Working with Buttons 469 12.3.4 Working with Text Fields 471 12.3.5 Working with Other Widgets 474 12.3.6 Other Notes 479 12.4 QtRuby 480 12.4.1 Overview 480 12.4.2 A Simple Windowed Application 480 12.4.3 Working with Buttons 481 12.4.4 Working with Text Fields 483 12.4.5 Working with Other Widgets 485 12.4.6 Other Notes 490 12.5 Swing 491 12.6 Other GUI Toolkits 493 12.6.1 UNIX and X11 493 12.6.2 FXRuby (FOX) 493 12.6.3 RubyMotion for iOS and Mac OS X 494 12.6.4 The Windows Win32API 494 12.7 Conclusion 494 13 Threads and Concurrency 495 13.1 Creating and Manipulating Threads 497 13.1.1 Creating Threads 497 13.1.2 Accessing Thread-Local Variables 498 13.1.3 Querying and Changing Thread Status 500 13.1.4 Achieving a Rendezvous (and Capturing a Return Value) 505 13.1.5 Dealing with Exceptions 506 13.1.6 Using a Thread Group 508 13.2 Synchronizing Threads 509 13.2.1 Performing Simple Synchronization 511 13.2.2 Synchronizing Access with a Mutex 512 13.2.3 Using the Built-in Queue Classes 515 13.2.4 Using Condition Variables 517 13.2.5 Other Synchronization Techniques 518 13.2.6 Setting a Timeout for an Operation 522 13.2.7 Waiting for an Event 524 13.2.8 Collection Searching in Parallel 525 13.2.9 Recursive Deletion in Parallel 526 13.3 Fibers and Cooperative Multitasking 527 13.4 Conclusion 530 14 Scripting and System Administration 531 14.1 Running External Programs 532 14.1.1 Using system and exec 532 14.1.2 Capturing Command Output 533 14.1.3 Manipulating Processes 534 14.1.4 Manipulating Standard Input and Output 537 14.2 Command-Line Options and Arguments 538 14.2.1 Working with ARGV 538 14.2.2 Working with ARGF 539 14.2.3 Parsing Command-Line Options 540 14.3 The Shell Library 542 14.3.1 Using Shell for I/O Redirection 542 14.3.2 Other Notes on Shell 544 14.4 Accessing Environment Variables 545 14.4.1 Getting and Setting Environment Variables 545 14.4.2 Storing Environment Variables as an Array or Hash 546 14.5 Working with Files, Directories, and Trees 547 14.5.1 A Few Words on Text Filters 547 14.5.2 Copying a Directory Tree 548 14.5.3 Deleting Files by Age or Other Criteria 549 14.5.4 Determining Free Space on a Disk 550 14.6 Other Scripting Tasks 551 14.6.1 Distributing Ruby Programs 551 14.6.2 Piping into the Ruby Interpreter 552 14.6.3 Testing Whether a Program Is Running Interactively 553 14.6.4 Determining the Current Platform or Operating System 554 14.6.5 Using the Etc Module 554 14.7 Conclusion 555 15 Ruby and Data Formats 557 15.1 Parsing JSON 558 15.1.1 Navigating JSON Data 559 15.1.2 Handling Non-JSON Data Types 560 15.1.3 Other JSON Libraries 560 15.2 Parsing XML (and HTML) 561 15.2.1 Document Parsing 561 15.2.2 Stream Parsing 564 15.3 Working with RSS and Atom 566 15.3.1 Parsing Feeds 567 15.3.2 Generating Feeds 568 15.4 Manipulating Image Data with RMagick 569 15.4.1 Common Graphics Tasks 570 15.4.2 Special Effects and Transformations 573 15.4.3 The Drawing API 576 15.5 Creating PDF Documents with Prawn 579 15.5.1 Basic Concepts and Techniques 579 15.5.2 An Example Document 580 15.6 Conclusion 584 16 Testing and Debugging 585 16.1 Testing with RSpec 586 16.2 Testing with Minitest 589 16.3 Testing with Cucumber 594 16.4 Using the byebug Debugger 596 16.5 Using pry for Debugging 600 16.6 Measuring Performance 601 16.7 Pretty-Printing Objects 606 16.8 Not Covered Here 608 16.9 Conclusion 609 17 Packaging and Distributing Code 611 17.1 Libraries and Rubygems 612 17.1.1 Using Rubygems 612 17.1.2 Creating Gems 613 17.2 Managing Dependencies with Bundler 614 17.2.1 Semantic Versioning 615 17.2.2 Dependencies from Git 616 17.2.3 Creating Gems with Bundler 617 17.2.4 Private Gems 617 17.3 Using RDoc 618 17.3.1 Simple Markup 620 17.3.2 Advanced Documentation with Yard 622 17.4 Conclusion 623 18 Network Programming 625 18.1 Network Servers 627 18.1.1 A Simple Server: Time of Day 627 18.1.2 Implementing a Threaded Server 629 18.1.3 Case Study: A Peer-to-Peer Chess Server 630 18.2 Network Clients 638 18.2.1 Retrieving Truly Random Numbers from the Web 638 18.2.2 Contacting an Official Timeserver 641 18.2.3 Interacting with a POP Server 642 18.2.4 Sending Mail with SMTP 644 18.2.5 Interacting with an IMAP Server 647 18.2.6 Encoding/Decoding Attachments 649 18.2.7 Case Study: A Mail-News Gateway 651 18.2.8 Retrieving a Web Page from a URL 657 18.2.9 Using the Open-URI Library 658 18.3 Conclusion 658 19 Ruby and Web Applications 661 19.1 HTTP Servers 662 19.1.1 A Simple HTTP Server 662 19.1.2 Rack and Web Servers 664 19.2 Application Frameworks 667 19.2.1 Routing in Sinatra 668 19.2.2 Routing in Rails 669 19.2.3 Parameters in Sinatra 671 19.2.4 Parameters in Rails 672 19.3 Storing Data 673 19.3.1 Databases 674 19.3.2 Data Stores 676 19.4 Generating HTML 677 19.4.1 ERB 678 19.4.2 Haml 680 19.4.3 Other Templating Systems 681 19.5 The Asset Pipeline 681 19.5.1 CSS and Sass 682 19.5.2 JavaScript and CoffeeScript 683 19.6 Web Services via HTTP 686 19.6.1 JSON for APIs 686 19.6.2 REST (and REST-ish) APIs 687 19.7 Generating Static Sites 688 19.7.1 Middleman 688 19.7.2 Other Static Site Generators 690 19.8 Conclusion 690 20 Distributed Ruby 691 20.1 An Overview: Using drb 692 20.2 Case Study: A Stock Ticker Simulation 695 20.3 Rinda: A Ruby Tuplespace 698 20.4 Service Discovery with Distributed Ruby 703 20.5 Conclusion 704 21 Ruby Development Tools 705 21.1 Using Rake 706 21.2 Using irb 710 21.3 The Basics of pry 715 21.4 The ri Utility 716 21.5 Editor Support 717 21.5.1 Vim 717 21.5.2 Emacs 718 21.6 Ruby Version Managers 719 21.6.1 Using rvm 719 21.6.2 Using rbenv 720 21.6.3 Using chruby 721 21.7 Conclusion 722 22 The Ruby Community 723 22.1 Web Resources 723 22.2 Mailing Lists, Podcasts, and Forums 724 22.3 Ruby Bug Reports and Feature Requests 724 22.4 IRC Channels 725 22.5 Ruby Conferences 725 22.6 Local Ruby Groups 726 22.7 Conclusion 726 Index 727


Szczegóły: The Ruby Way - Russ Olsen, Hal Fulton, Andre Arko

Tytuł: The Ruby Way
Autor: Russ Olsen, Hal Fulton, Andre Arko
Producent: Addison Wesley Publishing Company
ISBN: 9780321714633
Rok produkcji: 2015
Ilość stron: 816
Oprawa: Miękka
Waga: 1.25 kg


Recenzje: The Ruby Way - Russ Olsen, Hal Fulton, Andre Arko

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For more than a decade, Ruby developers have turned to The Ruby Way for reliable "how-to" guidance on effective Ruby programming. Now, Hal Fulton and Andre Arko have thoroughly updated this classic guide to cover new language enhancements and developers' experiences through Ruby 2.1. The new edition illuminates Ruby 2.1 through 400+ examples, each answering the question: "How do I do this in Ruby?" For each example, they present both a task description and realistic technical constraints. Next, they walk step-by-step through presenting one good solution, offering detailed explanations to promote deeper understanding. Conveniently organized by topic, The Ruby Way, Third Edition makes it easier than ever to find the specific solution you want-and to write better code by reflecting Ruby's unique philosophy and spirit. Coverage includes * Ruby 2.1 overview: terminology, philosophy, and basic principles * Best practices for strings and regular expressions * Efficiently internationalizing your code * Performing calculations (including trigonometry, calculus, statistics, and time/date calculations) * Working with "Rubyesque" objects such as symbols and ranges * Using arrays, hashes, stacks, queues, trees, graphs, and other data structures * Efficiently storing data with YAML, JSON, and SQLite3 * Leveraging object-oriented and dynamic features, from multiple constructors to program inspection * Building GUIs with Shoes 4, Ruby/Tk, Ruby/GTK3, QtRuby, and other toolkits * Improving thread performance by understanding Ruby's synchronization methods and avoiding its pitfalls * Automating system administration with Ruby * Data formats: JSON, XML, RSS, Atom, RMagick, PDF, and more * Testing and debugging with RSpec, Minitest, Cucumber, byebug, and pry * Measuring Ruby program performance * Packaging and distributing code, and managing dependencies with Bundler * Network programming: clients, time servers, POP, SMTP, IMAP, Open-URI * Web applications: HTTP servers, Rails, Sinatra, HTML generation, and more * Writing distributed Ruby software with drb * Choosing modern development tools that maximize your productivity All source code for this book may be downloaded at www. rubyhacker.com. informit.com/aw informit.com/ruby rubyhacker.com/therubyway therubyway.io Praise for The Ruby Way, Third Edition "Sticking to its tried and tested formula of cutting right to the techniques the modern day Rubyist needs to know, the latest edition of The Ruby Way keeps its strong reputation going for the latest generation of the Ruby language." Peter Cooper Editor of Ruby Weekly "The authors' excellent work and meticulous attention to detail continues in this latest update; this book remains an outstanding reference for the beginning Ruby programmer- as well as the seasoned developer who needs a quick refresh on Ruby. Highly recommended for anyone interested in Ruby programming." Kelvin Meeks Enterprise Architect Praise for Previous Editions of The Ruby Way "Among other things, this book excels at explaining metaprogramming, one of the most interesting aspects of Ruby. Many of the early ideas for Rails were inspired by the first edition, especially what is now Chapter 11. It puts you on a rollercoaster ride between 'How could I use this?' and 'This is so cool!' Once you get on that rollercoaster, there's no turning back." David Heinemeier Hansson Creator of Ruby on Rails, Founder at Basecamp "The appearance of the second edition of this classic book is an exciting event for Rubyists-and for lovers of superb technical writing in general. Hal Fulton brings a lively erudition and an engaging, lucid style to bear on a thorough and meticulously exact exposition of Ruby. You palpably feel the presence of a teacher who knows a tremendous amount and really wants to help you know it too." David Alan Black Author of The Well-Grounded Rubyist "This is an excellent resource for gaining insight into how and why Ruby works. Assomeone who has worked with Ruby for several years, I still found it full of new tricks and techniques. It's accessible both as a straight read and as a reference that one can dip into and learn something new." Chet Hendrickson Agile software pioneer "Ruby's a wonderful language-but sometimes you just want to get something done. Hal's book gives you the solution and teaches a good bit about why that solution is good Ruby." Martin Fowler Chief Scientist, ThoughtWorks Author of Patterns of Enterprise Application ArchitectureForeword xxiv Acknowledgments xxviii About the Authors xxxii Introduction xxxiii 1 Ruby in Review 1 1.1 An Introduction to Object Orientation 2 1.1.1 What Is an Object? 2 1.1.2 Inheritance 4 1.1.3 Polymorphism 6 1.1.4 A Few More Terms 7 1.2 Basic Ruby Syntax and Semantics 8 1.2.1 Keywords and Identifiers 9 1.2.2 Comments and Embedded Documentation 10 1.2.3 Constants, Variables, and Types 11 1.2.4 Operators and Precedence 13 1.2.5 A Sample Program 14 1.2.6 Looping and Branching 17 1.2.7 Exceptions 22 1.3 OOP in Ruby 25 1.3.1 Objects 26 1.3.2 Built-in Classes 26 1.3.3 Modules and Mixins 28 1.3.4 Creating Classes 29 1.3.5 Methods and Attributes 34 1.4 Dynamic Aspects of Ruby 36 1.4.1 Coding at Runtime 36 1.4.2 Reflection 38 1.4.3 Missing Methods 40 1.4.4 Garbage Collection 40 1.5 Training Your Intuition: Things to Remember 41 1.5.1 Syntax Issues 41 1.5.2 Perspectives in Programming 44 1.5.3 Ruby's case Statement 47 1.5.4 Rubyisms and Idioms 50 1.5.5 Expression Orientation and Other Miscellaneous Issues 57 1.6 Ruby Jargon and Slang 59 1.7 Conclusion 62 2 Working with Strings 63 2.1 Representing Ordinary Strings 64 2.2 Representing Strings with Alternate Notations 65 2.3 Using Here-Documents 65 2.4 Finding the Length of a String 67 2.5 Processing a Line at a Time 68 2.6 Processing a Character or Byte at a Time 68 2.7 Performing Specialized String Comparisons 69 2.8 Tokenizing a String 71 2.9 Formatting a String 73 2.10 Using Strings as IO Objects 74 2.11 Controlling Uppercase and Lowercase 74 2.12 Accessing and Assigning Substrings 75 2.13 Substituting in Strings 78 2.14 Searching a String 79 2.15 Converting Between Characters and ASCII Codes 80 2.16 Implicit and Explicit Conversion 80 2.17 Appending an Item onto a String 83 2.18 Removing Trailing Newlines and Other Characters 83 2.19 Trimming Whitespace from a String 84 2.20 Repeating Strings 85 2.21 Embedding Expressions within Strings 85 2.22 Delayed Interpolation of Strings 86 2.23 Parsing Comma-Separated Data 86 2.24 Converting Strings to Numbers (Decimal and Otherwise) 87 2.25 Encoding and Decoding rot13 Text 89 2.26 Encrypting Strings 90 2.27 Compressing Strings 91 2.28 Counting Characters in Strings 92 2.29 Reversing a String 92 2.30 Removing Duplicate Characters 93 2.31 Removing Specific Characters 93 2.32 Printing Special Characters 93 2.33 Generating Successive Strings 94 2.34 Calculating a 32-Bit CRC 94 2.35 Calculating the SHA-256 Hash of a String 95 2.36 Calculating the Levenshtein Distance Between Two Strings 96 2.37 Encoding and Decoding Base64 Strings 98 2.38 Expanding and Compressing Tab Characters 98 2.39 Wrapping Lines of Text 99 2.40 Conclusion 100 3 Working with Regular Expressions 101 3.1 Regular Expression Syntax 102 3.2 Compiling Regular Expressions 104 3.3 Escaping Special Characters 105 3.4 Using Anchors 105 3.5 Using Quantifiers 106 3.6 Positive and Negative Lookahead 109 3.7 Positive and Negative Lookbehind 110 3.8 Accessing Backreferences 111 3.9 Named Matches 114 3.10 Using Character Classes 116 3.11 Extended Regular Expressions 118 3.12 Matching a Newline with a Dot 119 3.13 Using Embedded Options 119 3.14 Using Embedded Subexpressions 120 3.14.1 Recursion in Regular Expressions 121 3.15 A Few Sample Regular Expressions 122 3.15.1 Matching an IP Address 122 3.15.2 Matching a Keyword-Value Pair 123 3.15.3 Matching Roman Numerals 124 3.15.4 Matching Numeric Constants 125 3.15.5 Matching a Date/Time String 125 3.15.6 Detecting Doubled Words in Text 126 3.15.7 Matching All-Caps Words 127 3.15.8 Matching Version Numbers 127 3.15.9 A Few Other Patterns 127 3.16 Conclusion 128 4 Internationalization in Ruby 129 4.1 Background and Terminology 131 4.2 Working with Character Encodings 135 4.2.1 Normalization 136 4.2.2 Encoding Conversions 139 4.2.3 Transliteration 141 4.2.4 Collation 141 4.3 Translations 144 4.3.1 Defaults 146 4.3.2 Namespaces 147 4.3.3 Interpolation 148 4.3.4 Pluralization 149 4.4 Localized Formatting 151 4.4.1 Dates and Times 151 4.4.2 Numbers 152 4.4.3 Currencies 153 4.5 Conclusion 153 5 Performing Numerical Calculations 155 5.1 Representing Numbers in Ruby 156 5.2 Basic Operations on Numbers 157 5.3 Rounding Floating Point Values 158 5.4 Comparing Floating Point Numbers 160 5.5 Formatting Numbers for Output 162 5.6 Formatting Numbers with Commas 162 5.7 Working with Very Large Integers 163 5.8 Using BigDecimal 163 5.9 Working with Rational Values 166 5.10 Matrix Manipulation 167 5.11 Working with Complex Numbers 171 5.12 Using mathn 172 5.13 Finding Prime Factorization, GCD, and LCM 173 5.14 Working with Prime Numbers 174 5.15 Implicit and Explicit Numeric Conversion 175 5.16 Coercing Numeric Values 176 5.17 Performing Bit-Level Operations on Numbers 177 5.18 Performing Base Conversions 179 5.19 Finding Cube Roots, Fourth Roots, and So On 180 5.20 Determining the Architecture's Byte Order 181 5.21 Numerical Computation of a Definite Integral 182 5.22 Trigonometry in Degrees, Radians, and Grads 183 5.23 Finding Logarithms with Arbitrary Bases 184 5.24 Finding the Mean, Median, and Mode of a Data Set 185 5.25 Variance and Standard Deviation 187 5.26 Finding a Correlation Coefficient 187 5.27 Generating Random Numbers 189 5.28 Caching Functions with Memoization 190 5.29 Conclusion 191 6 Symbols and Ranges 193 6.1 Symbols 193 6.1.1 Symbols as Enumerations 195 6.1.2 Symbols as Metavalues 196 6.1.3 Symbols, Variables, and Methods 197 6.1.4 Converting to/from Symbols 197 6.2 Ranges 199 6.2.1 Open and Closed Ranges 199 6.2.2 Finding Endpoints 200 6.2.3 Iterating Over Ranges 200 6.2.4 Testing Range Membership 201 6.2.5 Converting to Arrays 202 6.2.6 Backward Ranges 202 6.2.7 The Flip-Flop Operator 203 6.2.8 Custom Ranges 206 6.3 Conclusion 209 7 Working with Times and Dates 211 7.1 Determining the Current Time 212 7.2 Working with Specific Times (Post-Epoch) 212 7.3 Determining the Day of the Week 214 7.4 Determining the Date of Easter 215 7.5 Finding the Nth Weekday in a Month 215 7.6 Converting Between Seconds and Larger Units 217 7.7 Converting to and from the Epoch 217 7.8 Working with Leap Seconds: Don't! 218 7.9 Finding the Day of the Year 219 7.10 Validating a Date or Time 219 7.11 Finding the Week of the Year 220 7.12 Detecting Leap Years 221 7.13 Obtaining the Time Zone 222 7.14 Working with Hours and Minutes Only 222 7.15 Comparing Time Values 223 7.16 Adding Intervals to Time Values 223 7.17 Computing the Difference in Two Time Values 224 7.18 Working with Specific Dates (Pre-Epoch) 224 7.19 Time, Date, and DateTime 225 7.20 Parsing a Date or Time String 225 7.21 Formatting and Printing Time Values 226 7.22 Time Zone Conversions 227 7.23 Determining the Number of Days in a Month 228 7.24 Dividing a Month into Weeks 229 7.25 Conclusion 230 8 Arrays, Hashes, and Other Enumerables 231 8.1 Working with Arrays 232 8.1.1 Creating and Initializing an Array 232 8.1.2 Accessing and Assigning Array Elements 233 8.1.3 Finding an Array's Size 235 8.1.4 Comparing Arrays 235 8.1.5 Sorting an Array 237 8.1.6 Selecting from an Array by Criteria 240 8.1.7 Using Specialized Indexing Functions 242 8.1.8 Implementing a Sparse Matrix 244 8.1.9 Using Arrays as Mathematical Sets 244 8.1.10 Randomizing an Array 248 8.1.11 Using Multidimensional Arrays 249 8.1.12 Finding Elements in One Array But Not Another 250 8.1.13 Transforming or Mapping Arrays 250 8.1.14 Removing nil Values from an Array 251 8.1.15 Removing Specific Array Elements 251 8.1.16 Concatenating and Appending onto Arrays 253 8.1.17 Using an Array as a Stack or Queue 254 8.1.18 Iterating over an Array 254 8.1.19 Interposing Delimiters to Form a String 255 8.1.20 Reversing an Array 256 8.1.21 Removing Duplicate Elements from an Array 256 8.1.22 Interleaving Arrays 256 8.1.23 Counting Frequency of Values in an Array 257 8.1.24 Inverting an Array to Form a Hash 257 8.1.25 Synchronized Sorting of Multiple Arrays 258 8.1.26 Establishing a Default Value for New Array Elements 259 8.2 Working with Hashes 260 8.2.1 Creating a New Hash 260 8.2.2 Specifying a Default Value for a Hash 261 8.2.3 Accessing and Adding Key-Value Pairs 262 8.2.4 Deleting Key-Value Pairs 264 8.2.5 Iterating Over a Hash 264 8.2.6 Inverting a Hash 265 8.2.7 Detecting Keys and Values in a Hash 265 8.2.8 Extracting Hashes into Arrays 266 8.2.9 Selecting Key-Value Pairs by Criteria 266 8.2.10 Sorting a Hash 267 8.2.11 Merging Two Hashes 268 8.2.12 Creating a Hash from an Array 268 8.2.13 Finding Difference or Intersection of Hash Keys 268 8.2.14 Using a Hash as a Sparse Matrix 269 8.2.15 Implementing a Hash with Duplicate Keys 270 8.2.16 Other Hash Operations 273 8.3 Enumerables in General 273 8.3.1 The inject Method 274 8.3.2 Using Quantifiers 275 8.3.3 The partition Method 276 8.3.4 Iterating by Groups 277 8.3.5 Converting to Arrays or Sets 278 8.3.6 Using Enumerator Objects 278 8.4 More on Enumerables 280 8.4.1 Searching and Selecting 280 8.4.2 Counting and Comparing 281 8.4.3 Iterating 282 8.4.4 Extracting and Converting 283 8.4.5 Lazy Enumerators 284 8.5 Conclusion 285 9 More Advanced Data Structures 287 9.1 Working with Sets 288 9.1.1 Simple Set Operations 288 9.1.2 More Advanced Set Operations 290 9.2 Working with Stacks and Queues 291 9.2.1 Implementing a Stricter Stack 293 9.2.2 Detecting Unbalanced Punctuation in Expressions 294 9.2.3 Understanding Stacks and Recursion 295 9.2.4 Implementing a Stricter Queue 297 9.3 Working with Trees 298 9.3.1 Implementing a Binary Tree 298 9.3.2 Sorting Using a Binary Tree 300 9.3.3 Using a Binary Tree as a Lookup Table 302 9.3.4 Converting a Tree to a String or Array 303 9.4 Working with Graphs 304 9.4.1 Implementing a Graph as an Adjacency Matrix 304 9.4.2 Determining Whether a Graph Is Fully Connected 307 9.4.3 Determining Whether a Graph Has an Euler Circuit 308 9.4.4 Determining Whether a Graph Has an Euler Path 309 9.4.5 Graph Tools in Ruby 310 9.5 Conclusion 310 10 I/O and Data Storage 311 10.1 Working with Files and Directories 313 10.1.1 Opening and Closing Files 313 10.1.2 Updating a File 314 10.1.3 Appending to a File 315 10.1.4 Random Access to Files 315 10.1.5 Working with Binary Files 316 10.1.6 Locking Files 318 10.1.7 Performing Simple I/O 318 10.1.8 Performing Buffered and Unbuffered I/O 320 10.1.9 Manipulating File Ownership and Permissions 321 10.1.10 Retrieving and Setting Timestamp Information 323 10.1.11 Checking File Existence and Size 325 10.1.12 Checking Special File Characteristics 326 10.1.13 Working with Pipes 328 10.1.14 Performing Special I/O Operations 329 10.1.15 Using Nonblocking I/O 330 10.1.16 Using readpartial 331 10.1.17 Manipulating Pathnames 331 10.1.18 Using the Pathname Class 333 10.1.19 Command-Level File Manipulation 334 10.1.20 Grabbing Characters from the Keyboard 336 10.1.21 Reading an Entire File into Memory 336 10.1.22 Iterating Over a File by Lines 337 10.1.23 Iterating Over a File by Byte or Character 337 10.1.24 Treating a String As a File 338 10.1.25 Copying a Stream 339 10.1.26 Working with Character Encodings 339 10.1.27 Reading Data Embedded in a Program 339 10.1.28 Reading Program Source 340 10.1.29 Working with Temporary Files 340 10.1.30 Changing and Setting the Current Directory 341 10.1.31 Changing the Current Root 342 10.1.32 Iterating Over Directory Entries 342 10.1.33 Getting a List of Directory Entries 342 10.1.34 Creating a Chain of Directories 342 10.1.35 Deleting a Directory Recursively 343 10.1.36 Finding Files and Directories 343 10.2 Higher-Level Data Access 344 10.2.1 Simple Marshaling 345 10.2.2 "Deep Copying" with Marshal 346 10.2.3 More Complex Marshaling 346 10.2.4 Marshaling with YAML 347 10.2.5 Persisting Data with JSON 349 10.2.6 Working with CSV Data 350 10.2.7 SQLite3 for SQL Data Storage 352 10.3 Connecting to External Data Stores 353 10.3.1 Connecting to MySQL Databases 354 10.3.2 Connecting to PostgreSQL Databases 356 10.3.3 Object-Relational Mappers (ORMs) 358 10.3.4 Connecting to Redis Data Stores 359 10.4 Conclusion 360 11 OOP and Dynamic Features in Ruby 361 11.1 Everyday OOP Tasks 362 11.1.1 Using Multiple Constructors 362 11.1.2 Creating Instance Attributes 364 11.1.3 Using More Elaborate Constructors 366 11.1.4 Creating Class-Level Attributes and Methods 368 11.1.5 Inheriting from a Superclass 372 11.1.6 Testing Classes of Objects 374 11.1.7 Testing Equality of Objects 377 11.1.8 Controlling Access to Methods 378 11.1.9 Copying an Object 381 11.1.10 Using initialize_copy 383 11.1.11 Understanding allocate 384 11.1.12 Working with Modules 384 11.1.13 Transforming or Converting Objects 388 11.1.14 Creating Data-Only Classes (Structs) 390 11.1.15 Freezing Objects 391 11.1.16 Using tap in Method Chaining 393 11.2 More Advanced Techniques 394 11.2.1 Sending an Explicit Message to an Object 394 11.2.2 Specializing an Individual Object 396 11.2.3 Nesting Classes and Modules 399 11.2.4 Creating Parametric Classes 400 11.2.5 Storing Code as Proc Objects 403 11.2.6 Storing Code as Method Objects 405 11.2.7 Using Symbols as Blocks 406 11.2.8 How Module Inclusion Works 406 11.2.9 Detecting Default Parameters 409 11.2.10 Delegating or Forwarding 409 11.2.11 Defining Class-Level Readers and Writers 412 11.2.12 Working in Advanced Programming Disciplines 414 11.3 Working with Dynamic Features 416 11.3.1 Evaluating Code Dynamically 416 11.3.2 Retrieving a Constant by Name 418 11.3.3 Retrieving a Class by Name 418 11.3.4 Using define_method 419 11.3.5 Obtaining Lists of Defined Entities 423 11.3.6 Removing Definitions 425 11.3.7 Handling References to Nonexistent Constants 427 11.3.8 Handling Calls to Nonexistent Methods 429 11.3.9 Improved Security with taint 430 11.3.10 Defining Finalizers for Objects 432 11.4 Program Introspection 433 11.4.1 Traversing the Object Space 434 11.4.2 Examining the Call Stack 435 11.4.3 Tracking Changes to a Class or Object Definition 435 11.4.4 Monitoring Program Execution 439 11.5 Conclusion 441 12 Graphical Interfaces for Ruby 443 12.1 Shoes 4 444 12.1.1 Starting Out with Shoes 444 12.1.2 An Interactive Button 445 12.1.3 Text and Input 446 12.1.4 Layout 448 12.1.5 Images and Shapes 450 12.1.6 Events 450 12.1.7 Other Notes 451 12.2 Ruby/Tk 452 12.2.1 Overview 452 12.2.2 A Simple Windowed Application 453 12.2.3 Working with Buttons 455 12.2.4 Working with Text Fields 459 12.2.5 Working with Other Widgets 463 12.2.6 Other Notes 467 12.3 Ruby/GTK3 467 12.3.1 Overview 467 12.3.2 A Simple Windowed Application 468 12.3.3 Working with Buttons 469 12.3.4 Working with Text Fields 471 12.3.5 Working with Other Widgets 474 12.3.6 Other Notes 479 12.4 QtRuby 480 12.4.1 Overview 480 12.4.2 A Simple Windowed Application 480 12.4.3 Working with Buttons 481 12.4.4 Working with Text Fields 483 12.4.5 Working with Other Widgets 485 12.4.6 Other Notes 490 12.5 Swing 491 12.6 Other GUI Toolkits 493 12.6.1 UNIX and X11 493 12.6.2 FXRuby (FOX) 493 12.6.3 RubyMotion for iOS and Mac OS X 494 12.6.4 The Windows Win32API 494 12.7 Conclusion 494 13 Threads and Concurrency 495 13.1 Creating and Manipulating Threads 497 13.1.1 Creating Threads 497 13.1.2 Accessing Thread-Local Variables 498 13.1.3 Querying and Changing Thread Status 500 13.1.4 Achieving a Rendezvous (and Capturing a Return Value) 505 13.1.5 Dealing with Exceptions 506 13.1.6 Using a Thread Group 508 13.2 Synchronizing Threads 509 13.2.1 Performing Simple Synchronization 511 13.2.2 Synchronizing Access with a Mutex 512 13.2.3 Using the Built-in Queue Classes 515 13.2.4 Using Condition Variables 517 13.2.5 Other Synchronization Techniques 518 13.2.6 Setting a Timeout for an Operation 522 13.2.7 Waiting for an Event 524 13.2.8 Collection Searching in Parallel 525 13.2.9 Recursive Deletion in Parallel 526 13.3 Fibers and Cooperative Multitasking 527 13.4 Conclusion 530 14 Scripting and System Administration 531 14.1 Running External Programs 532 14.1.1 Using system and exec 532 14.1.2 Capturing Command Output 533 14.1.3 Manipulating Processes 534 14.1.4 Manipulating Standard Input and Output 537 14.2 Command-Line Options and Arguments 538 14.2.1 Working with ARGV 538 14.2.2 Working with ARGF 539 14.2.3 Parsing Command-Line Options 540 14.3 The Shell Library 542 14.3.1 Using Shell for I/O Redirection 542 14.3.2 Other Notes on Shell 544 14.4 Accessing Environment Variables 545 14.4.1 Getting and Setting Environment Variables 545 14.4.2 Storing Environment Variables as an Array or Hash 546 14.5 Working with Files, Directories, and Trees 547 14.5.1 A Few Words on Text Filters 547 14.5.2 Copying a Directory Tree 548 14.5.3 Deleting Files by Age or Other Criteria 549 14.5.4 Determining Free Space on a Disk 550 14.6 Other Scripting Tasks 551 14.6.1 Distributing Ruby Programs 551 14.6.2 Piping into the Ruby Interpreter 552 14.6.3 Testing Whether a Program Is Running Interactively 553 14.6.4 Determining the Current Platform or Operating System 554 14.6.5 Using the Etc Module 554 14.7 Conclusion 555 15 Ruby and Data Formats 557 15.1 Parsing JSON 558 15.1.1 Navigating JSON Data 559 15.1.2 Handling Non-JSON Data Types 560 15.1.3 Other JSON Libraries 560 15.2 Parsing XML (and HTML) 561 15.2.1 Document Parsing 561 15.2.2 Stream Parsing 564 15.3 Working with RSS and Atom 566 15.3.1 Parsing Feeds 567 15.3.2 Generating Feeds 568 15.4 Manipulating Image Data with RMagick 569 15.4.1 Common Graphics Tasks 570 15.4.2 Special Effects and Transformations 573 15.4.3 The Drawing API 576 15.5 Creating PDF Documents with Prawn 579 15.5.1 Basic Concepts and Techniques 579 15.5.2 An Example Document 580 15.6 Conclusion 584 16 Testing and Debugging 585 16.1 Testing with RSpec 586 16.2 Testing with Minitest 589 16.3 Testing with Cucumber 594 16.4 Using the byebug Debugger 596 16.5 Using pry for Debugging 600 16.6 Measuring Performance 601 16.7 Pretty-Printing Objects 606 16.8 Not Covered Here 608 16.9 Conclusion 609 17 Packaging and Distributing Code 611 17.1 Libraries and Rubygems 612 17.1.1 Using Rubygems 612 17.1.2 Creating Gems 613 17.2 Managing Dependencies with Bundler 614 17.2.1 Semantic Versioning 615 17.2.2 Dependencies from Git 616 17.2.3 Creating Gems with Bundler 617 17.2.4 Private Gems 617 17.3 Using RDoc 618 17.3.1 Simple Markup 620 17.3.2 Advanced Documentation with Yard 622 17.4 Conclusion 623 18 Network Programming 625 18.1 Network Servers 627 18.1.1 A Simple Server: Time of Day 627 18.1.2 Implementing a Threaded Server 629 18.1.3 Case Study: A Peer-to-Peer Chess Server 630 18.2 Network Clients 638 18.2.1 Retrieving Truly Random Numbers from the Web 638 18.2.2 Contacting an Official Timeserver 641 18.2.3 Interacting with a POP Server 642 18.2.4 Sending Mail with SMTP 644 18.2.5 Interacting with an IMAP Server 647 18.2.6 Encoding/Decoding Attachments 649 18.2.7 Case Study: A Mail-News Gateway 651 18.2.8 Retrieving a Web Page from a URL 657 18.2.9 Using the Open-URI Library 658 18.3 Conclusion 658 19 Ruby and Web Applications 661 19.1 HTTP Servers 662 19.1.1 A Simple HTTP Server 662 19.1.2 Rack and Web Servers 664 19.2 Application Frameworks 667 19.2.1 Routing in Sinatra 668 19.2.2 Routing in Rails 669 19.2.3 Parameters in Sinatra 671 19.2.4 Parameters in Rails 672 19.3 Storing Data 673 19.3.1 Databases 674 19.3.2 Data Stores 676 19.4 Generating HTML 677 19.4.1 ERB 678 19.4.2 Haml 680 19.4.3 Other Templating Systems 681 19.5 The Asset Pipeline 681 19.5.1 CSS and Sass 682 19.5.2 JavaScript and CoffeeScript 683 19.6 Web Services via HTTP 686 19.6.1 JSON for APIs 686 19.6.2 REST (and REST-ish) APIs 687 19.7 Generating Static Sites 688 19.7.1 Middleman 688 19.7.2 Other Static Site Generators 690 19.8 Conclusion 690 20 Distributed Ruby 691 20.1 An Overview: Using drb 692 20.2 Case Study: A Stock Ticker Simulation 695 20.3 Rinda: A Ruby Tuplespace 698 20.4 Service Discovery with Distributed Ruby 703 20.5 Conclusion 704 21 Ruby Development Tools 705 21.1 Using Rake 706 21.2 Using irb 710 21.3 The Basics of pry 715 21.4 The ri Utility 716 21.5 Editor Support 717 21.5.1 Vim 717 21.5.2 Emacs 718 21.6 Ruby Version Managers 719 21.6.1 Using rvm 719 21.6.2 Using rbenv 720 21.6.3 Using chruby 721 21.7 Conclusion 722 22 The Ruby Community 723 22.1 Web Resources 723 22.2 Mailing Lists, Podcasts, and Forums 724 22.3 Ruby Bug Reports and Feature Requests 724 22.4 IRC Channels 725 22.5 Ruby Conferences 725 22.6 Local Ruby Groups 726 22.7 Conclusion 726 Index 727

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Szczegóły: The Ruby Way - Russ Olsen, Hal Fulton, Andre Arko

Tytuł: The Ruby Way
Autor: Russ Olsen, Hal Fulton, Andre Arko
Producent: Addison Wesley Publishing Company
ISBN: 9780321714633
Rok produkcji: 2015
Ilość stron: 816
Oprawa: Miękka
Waga: 1.25 kg


Recenzje: The Ruby Way - Russ Olsen, Hal Fulton, Andre Arko

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