Foragers, Farmers, and Fossil Fuels

Foragers, Farmers, and Fossil Fuels

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Opis: Foragers, Farmers, and Fossil Fuels - Ian Morris

Most people in the world today think democracy and gender equality are good, and that violence and wealth inequality are bad. But most people who lived during the 10,000 years before the nineteenth century thought just the opposite. Drawing on archaeology, anthropology, biology, and history, Ian Morris, author of the best-selling Why the West Rules--for Now, explains why. The result is a compelling new argument about the evolution of human values, one that has far-reaching implications for how we understand the past--and for what might happen next. Fundamental long-term changes in values, Morris argues, are driven by the most basic force of all: energy. Humans have found three main ways to get the energy they need--from foraging, farming, and fossil fuels. Each energy source sets strict limits on what kinds of societies can succeed, and each kind of society rewards specific values. In tiny forager bands, people who value equality but are ready to settle problems violently do better than those who aren't; in large farming societies, people who value hierarchy and are less willing to use violence do best; and in huge fossil-fuel societies, the pendulum has swung back toward equality but even further away from violence. But if our fossil-fuel world favors democratic, open societies, the ongoing revolution in energy capture means that our most cherished values are very likely to turn out--at some point fairly soon--not to be useful any more. Originating as the Tanner Lectures delivered at Princeton University, the book includes challenging responses by novelist Margaret Atwood, philosopher Christine Korsgaard, classicist Richard Seaford, and historian of China Jonathan Spence. "I may disagree with some ideas in [Foragers, Farmers, and Fossil Fuels], but I have thoroughly enjoyed reading this excellent and thought-provoking book. More important, by putting forth a bold, clearly formulated hypothesis, Ian Morris has done a great service to the budding field of scientific history."--Peter Turchin, Science "A provocative explanation for the evolution and divergence of ethical values... In the hands of this talented writer and thinker, [the] material becomes an engaging intellectual adventure."--Kirkus "[A] very good and enjoyable read."--Enlightened EconomistList of Figures and Tables ix Acknowledgments xi Introduction by Stephen Macedo xiii Chapter 1 Each Age Gets the Thought It Needs 1 Chapter 2 Foragers 25 Chapter 3 Farmers 44 Chapter 4 Fossil Fuels 93 Chapter 5 The Evolution of Values: Biology, Culture, and the Shape of Things to Come 139 Comments Chapter 6 On the Ideology of Imagining That "Each Age Gets the Thought It Needs," Richard Seaford 172 Chapter 7 But What Was It Really Like? The Limitations of Measuring Historical Values, Jonathan D. Spence 180 Chapter 8 Eternal Values, Evolving Values, and the Value of the Self, Christine M. Korsgaard 184 Chapter 9 When the Lights Go Out: Human Values after the Collapse of Civilization, Margaret Atwood 202 Response Chapter 10 My Correct Views on Everything, Ian Morris 208 Notes 267 References 305 Contributors 341 Index 343


Szczegóły: Foragers, Farmers, and Fossil Fuels - Ian Morris

Tytuł: Foragers, Farmers, and Fossil Fuels
Autor: Ian Morris
Producent: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691160399
Rok produkcji: 2015
Ilość stron: 400
Oprawa: Twarda
Waga: 0.57 kg


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