Handbook of Coal Analysis

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Opis: Handbook of Coal Analysis - James Speight

Provides users with everything they need to know about testing and analysis of coal * Includes new coverage on environmental issues and regulations as related to coal * Provides the reader with the necessary information about testing and analyzing coal and relays the advantages and limitations in understanding the quality and performance of coal * Explains the meaning of test results and how these results can predict coal behavior and its corresponding environmental impact during use * Includes a comprehensive Glossary which defines items in straightforward language that enable readers to better understand the terminology related to coal * Treats issues related to sampling, and accuracy and precision of analysisAuthor Biography xi Preface xiii 1 History and Terminology 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Definitions and Terminology 2 1.3 Precursors of Coal 4 1.4 Coal-Forming Processes 7 1.5 Heteroatoms in Coal 8 1.5.1 Nitrogen 9 1.5.2 Oxygen 10 1.5.3 Sulfur 11 1.5.4 Other Elements 12 1.6 Physical Structure 13 1.7 Petrology and Petrography 14 1.7.1 Petrology 14 1.7.2 Petrography 15 1.7.3 Microlithotypes 17 1.7.4 Inorganic Constituents 17 1.7.5 Petrology, Petrography, and Behavior 18 1.8 Coal and Coal Analysis 21 References 23 2 Identification of Coal 27 2.1 Introduction 27 2.2 Analytical Techniques 31 2.3 Standard Test Methods 35 2.4 Coal Classification 37 2.5 Use of Coal 43 2.5.1 PreModern Use of Coal 44 2.5.2 Modern Use of Coal 47 2.6 The Future 49 References 50 3 Sampling and Sample Preparation 54 3.1 Introduction 54 3.2 Sampling 56 3.2.1 General Aspects 57 3.2.2 Manual Sampling 61 3.2.3 Mechanical Sampling 65 3.3 Sample Preparation 66 3.4 Washability 68 3.5 Accuracy and Precision 73 3.5.1 Accuracy 73 3.5.2 Precision 74 3.5.3 Repeatability 74 3.5.4 Bias 75 3.5.5 Method Validation 76 3.6 Reporting Coal Analyses 78 3.7 Interrelationships of the Data 80 References 81 4 Mineral Matter 84 4.1 Introduction 84 4.2 Origin and Occurrence 85 4.2.1 Origin 87 4.2.2 Occurrence 88 4.3 Mineral Types 90 4.3.1 Clay Minerals 91 4.3.2 Silicate Minerals 92 4.3.3 Carbonate Minerals 93 4.3.4 Sulfide and Sulfate Minerals 93 4.3.5 Other Minerals 94 4.3.6 Effect of Mineral Matter on Coal Use 94 4.4 Evaluation 95 4.4.1 Ashing Techniques 97 4.4.2 Ash Analysis and/or Direct Mineral Analysis 99 4.4.3 Non-Ashing Techniques 106 4.4.4 Data Handling and Interpretation 108 4.5 Chemistry of ASH Formation 110 References 112 5 Proximate Analysis 116 5.1 Introduction 116 5.2 Moisture Content 118 5.2.1 Test Methods 124 5.2.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 126 5.3 ASH 127 5.3.1 Test Methods 128 5.3.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 131 5.4 Volatile Matter 132 5.4.1 Test Methods 133 5.4.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 135 5.5 Fixed Carbon 136 5.6 Coal Assay 137 5.6.1 Gray King Assay at 600 C (1112 F) 137 5.6.2 Gray King Assay at 900 C (1652 F) 138 5.6.3 Other Carbonization Tests 138 5.7 Other Methods 140 References 140 6 Ultimate Analysis 144 6.1 Introduction 144 6.2 Carbon and Hydrogen 145 6.2.1 Test Methods 145 6.2.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 147 6.3 Nitrogen 148 6.3.1 Test Methods 148 6.3.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 150 6.4 Oxygen 150 6.4.1 Test Methods 151 6.4.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 153 6.5 Sulfur 155 6.5.1 Test Methods 156 6.5.2 Determination of the Forms of Sulfur 158 6.5.3 Data Handling and Interpretation 160 6.6 Chlorine 161 6.6.1 Test Methods 161 6.6.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 162 6.7 Mercury 163 6.7.1 Test Methods 163 6.7.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 164 6.8 Other Constituents 164 6.8.1 Carbon Dioxide 164 6.8.2 Arsenic and Selenium 166 References 166 7 Physical Properties 170 7.1 Introduction 170 7.2 Density and Specific Gravity 172 7.3 Porosity and Surface Area 180 7.4 Reflectance 186 7.5 Refractive Index 190 7.6 Electrical Conductivity 190 7.7 Dielectric Constant 193 7.8 Dielectric Strength 194 References 194 8 Thermal Properties 198 8.1 Introduction 198 8.2 Calorific Value 198 8.2.1 Test Methods 203 8.2.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 205 8.3 Heat Capacity 206 8.3.1 Test Methods 206 8.3.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 206 8.4 Thermal Conductivity 209 8.4.1 Test Methods 209 8.4.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 209 8.5 Plastic and Agglutinating Properties 210 8.5.1 Test Methods 211 8.5.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 212 8.5.3 Data Handling and Interpretation 215 8.6 Free Swelling Index 216 8.6.1 Test Method 216 8.6.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 219 8.7 ASH Fusibility 220 8.7.1 Test Methods 221 8.7.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 222 8.8 Thermal Conductivity 223 8.8.1 Test Methods 223 8.8.2 Data handling and Interpretation 223 References 224 9 Mechanical Properties 226 9.1 Introduction 226 9.2 Strength 228 9.2.1 Test Methods 229 9.2.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 231 9.3 Hardness 231 9.3.1 Test Methods 232 9.3.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 233 9.4 Friability 234 9.4.1 Test Methods 236 9.4.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 237 9.5 Grindability 238 9.5.1 Test Methods 238 9.5.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 239 9.6 Other Mechanical Properties 242 9.6.1 Cleat Structure 242 9.6.2 Deformation and Flow under Stress 244 References 245 10 Solvent Properties and Spectroscopic Properties 249 10.1 Introduction 249 10.2 Solvent Properties 250 10.2.1 Action of Specific Solvents 253 10.2.2 Influence of Coal Rank 254 10.2.3 Influence of Petrographic Composition 255 10.2.4 Analysis of Coal Extracts 256 10.3 Spectroscopic Properties 257 10.3.1 Infrared Spectroscopy 257 10.3.2 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 261 10.3.3 Mass Spectrometry 263 10.3.4 Ultraviolet Spectroscopy 264 10.3.5 X-Ray Diffraction 265 10.3.6 Electron Spin Resonance 265 10.3.7 Miscellaneous Methods 266 References 267 11 The Need for Coal Analysis 275 11.1 Introduction 275 11.2 Identification and Character of Coal 276 11.3 Physical Properties 278 11.4 Production 279 11.4.1 Dust 280 11.4.2 Fugitive Emissions 281 11.4.3 Mine Waste Disposal 281 11.4.4 Subsidence 282 11.5 Preparation, Transportation, and Storage 283 11.5.1 Preparation 283 11.5.2 Transportation 283 11.5.3 Storage 284 11.6 Utilization 285 11.6.1 Combustion 285 11.6.2 Carbonization 292 11.6.3 Liquefaction 293 11.6.4 Gasification 293 References 294 Glossary 298 Common Conversion Factors Used in Coal Technology 338 Index 341


Szczegóły: Handbook of Coal Analysis - James Speight

Tytuł: Handbook of Coal Analysis
Autor: James Speight
Producent: John Wiley
ISBN: 9781118369241
Rok produkcji: 2015
Ilość stron: 368
Oprawa: Twarda
Waga: 0.67 kg


Recenzje: Handbook of Coal Analysis - James Speight

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Handbook of Coal Analysis

Provides users with everything they need to know about testing and analysis of coal * Includes new coverage on environmental issues and regulations as related to coal * Provides the reader with the necessary information about testing and analyzing coal and relays the advantages and limitations in understanding the quality and performance of coal * Explains the meaning of test results and how these results can predict coal behavior and its corresponding environmental impact during use * Includes a comprehensive Glossary which defines items in straightforward language that enable readers to better understand the terminology related to coal * Treats issues related to sampling, and accuracy and precision of analysisAuthor Biography xi Preface xiii 1 History and Terminology 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Definitions and Terminology 2 1.3 Precursors of Coal 4 1.4 Coal-Forming Processes 7 1.5 Heteroatoms in Coal 8 1.5.1 Nitrogen 9 1.5.2 Oxygen 10 1.5.3 Sulfur 11 1.5.4 Other Elements 12 1.6 Physical Structure 13 1.7 Petrology and Petrography 14 1.7.1 Petrology 14 1.7.2 Petrography 15 1.7.3 Microlithotypes 17 1.7.4 Inorganic Constituents 17 1.7.5 Petrology, Petrography, and Behavior 18 1.8 Coal and Coal Analysis 21 References 23 2 Identification of Coal 27 2.1 Introduction 27 2.2 Analytical Techniques 31 2.3 Standard Test Methods 35 2.4 Coal Classification 37 2.5 Use of Coal 43 2.5.1 PreModern Use of Coal 44 2.5.2 Modern Use of Coal 47 2.6 The Future 49 References 50 3 Sampling and Sample Preparation 54 3.1 Introduction 54 3.2 Sampling 56 3.2.1 General Aspects 57 3.2.2 Manual Sampling 61 3.2.3 Mechanical Sampling 65 3.3 Sample Preparation 66 3.4 Washability 68 3.5 Accuracy and Precision 73 3.5.1 Accuracy 73 3.5.2 Precision 74 3.5.3 Repeatability 74 3.5.4 Bias 75 3.5.5 Method Validation 76 3.6 Reporting Coal Analyses 78 3.7 Interrelationships of the Data 80 References 81 4 Mineral Matter 84 4.1 Introduction 84 4.2 Origin and Occurrence 85 4.2.1 Origin 87 4.2.2 Occurrence 88 4.3 Mineral Types 90 4.3.1 Clay Minerals 91 4.3.2 Silicate Minerals 92 4.3.3 Carbonate Minerals 93 4.3.4 Sulfide and Sulfate Minerals 93 4.3.5 Other Minerals 94 4.3.6 Effect of Mineral Matter on Coal Use 94 4.4 Evaluation 95 4.4.1 Ashing Techniques 97 4.4.2 Ash Analysis and/or Direct Mineral Analysis 99 4.4.3 Non-Ashing Techniques 106 4.4.4 Data Handling and Interpretation 108 4.5 Chemistry of ASH Formation 110 References 112 5 Proximate Analysis 116 5.1 Introduction 116 5.2 Moisture Content 118 5.2.1 Test Methods 124 5.2.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 126 5.3 ASH 127 5.3.1 Test Methods 128 5.3.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 131 5.4 Volatile Matter 132 5.4.1 Test Methods 133 5.4.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 135 5.5 Fixed Carbon 136 5.6 Coal Assay 137 5.6.1 Gray King Assay at 600 C (1112 F) 137 5.6.2 Gray King Assay at 900 C (1652 F) 138 5.6.3 Other Carbonization Tests 138 5.7 Other Methods 140 References 140 6 Ultimate Analysis 144 6.1 Introduction 144 6.2 Carbon and Hydrogen 145 6.2.1 Test Methods 145 6.2.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 147 6.3 Nitrogen 148 6.3.1 Test Methods 148 6.3.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 150 6.4 Oxygen 150 6.4.1 Test Methods 151 6.4.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 153 6.5 Sulfur 155 6.5.1 Test Methods 156 6.5.2 Determination of the Forms of Sulfur 158 6.5.3 Data Handling and Interpretation 160 6.6 Chlorine 161 6.6.1 Test Methods 161 6.6.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 162 6.7 Mercury 163 6.7.1 Test Methods 163 6.7.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 164 6.8 Other Constituents 164 6.8.1 Carbon Dioxide 164 6.8.2 Arsenic and Selenium 166 References 166 7 Physical Properties 170 7.1 Introduction 170 7.2 Density and Specific Gravity 172 7.3 Porosity and Surface Area 180 7.4 Reflectance 186 7.5 Refractive Index 190 7.6 Electrical Conductivity 190 7.7 Dielectric Constant 193 7.8 Dielectric Strength 194 References 194 8 Thermal Properties 198 8.1 Introduction 198 8.2 Calorific Value 198 8.2.1 Test Methods 203 8.2.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 205 8.3 Heat Capacity 206 8.3.1 Test Methods 206 8.3.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 206 8.4 Thermal Conductivity 209 8.4.1 Test Methods 209 8.4.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 209 8.5 Plastic and Agglutinating Properties 210 8.5.1 Test Methods 211 8.5.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 212 8.5.3 Data Handling and Interpretation 215 8.6 Free Swelling Index 216 8.6.1 Test Method 216 8.6.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 219 8.7 ASH Fusibility 220 8.7.1 Test Methods 221 8.7.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 222 8.8 Thermal Conductivity 223 8.8.1 Test Methods 223 8.8.2 Data handling and Interpretation 223 References 224 9 Mechanical Properties 226 9.1 Introduction 226 9.2 Strength 228 9.2.1 Test Methods 229 9.2.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 231 9.3 Hardness 231 9.3.1 Test Methods 232 9.3.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 233 9.4 Friability 234 9.4.1 Test Methods 236 9.4.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 237 9.5 Grindability 238 9.5.1 Test Methods 238 9.5.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 239 9.6 Other Mechanical Properties 242 9.6.1 Cleat Structure 242 9.6.2 Deformation and Flow under Stress 244 References 245 10 Solvent Properties and Spectroscopic Properties 249 10.1 Introduction 249 10.2 Solvent Properties 250 10.2.1 Action of Specific Solvents 253 10.2.2 Influence of Coal Rank 254 10.2.3 Influence of Petrographic Composition 255 10.2.4 Analysis of Coal Extracts 256 10.3 Spectroscopic Properties 257 10.3.1 Infrared Spectroscopy 257 10.3.2 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 261 10.3.3 Mass Spectrometry 263 10.3.4 Ultraviolet Spectroscopy 264 10.3.5 X-Ray Diffraction 265 10.3.6 Electron Spin Resonance 265 10.3.7 Miscellaneous Methods 266 References 267 11 The Need for Coal Analysis 275 11.1 Introduction 275 11.2 Identification and Character of Coal 276 11.3 Physical Properties 278 11.4 Production 279 11.4.1 Dust 280 11.4.2 Fugitive Emissions 281 11.4.3 Mine Waste Disposal 281 11.4.4 Subsidence 282 11.5 Preparation, Transportation, and Storage 283 11.5.1 Preparation 283 11.5.2 Transportation 283 11.5.3 Storage 284 11.6 Utilization 285 11.6.1 Combustion 285 11.6.2 Carbonization 292 11.6.3 Liquefaction 293 11.6.4 Gasification 293 References 294 Glossary 298 Common Conversion Factors Used in Coal Technology 338 Index 341

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Cena 526,00 PLN
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Wysyłka: Niedostępna
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Szczegóły: Handbook of Coal Analysis - James Speight

Tytuł: Handbook of Coal Analysis
Autor: James Speight
Producent: John Wiley
ISBN: 9781118369241
Rok produkcji: 2015
Ilość stron: 368
Oprawa: Twarda
Waga: 0.67 kg


Recenzje: Handbook of Coal Analysis - James Speight

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