Antenna Designs for NFC Devices

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Opis: Antenna Designs for NFC Devices - Dominique Paret

Near-field communication (NFC) enables the exchange of information between close devices. The antenna is the indispensable element to transform an electronic device into an NFC system. For both theory and practice, this book presents in detail the design technologies of different antennas. They must meet the NFC ISO 18 092 and 21 481 standards as well as specifications by the NFC Forum for industrial applications, by EMVCo for banking applications and payments, and by CEN for public transport. In a particularly pedagogic way, Antenna Designs for NFC Devices enables designers of communicating object systems and the Internet of Things (IoT) to have access to the mysteries of the design of NFC antennas.Acknowledgments xi Preface xiii Introduction xvii Part 1. Context 1 Introduction to Part 1 3 Chapter 1. Recap of the Constraints Governing the Design of Antennas for an NFC Device 5 1.1. Normative constraints 6 1.1.1. Uplink from initiator to targets 7 1.1.2. Downlink from targets to initiator 8 1.1.3. Contactless standards versus NFC device antennas 10 1.1.4. Technologies 12 1.1.5. NFC Forum Devices and NFC Forum Tags 12 1.1.6. Modes of communication of an NFC Forum Device 14 1.1.7. Role of an NFC Forum Device 16 1.1.8. Beware of false advertising 17 1.2. Regulatory constraints 17 1.2.1. RF regulations 17 1.3. Constraints on the NFC market 18 1.4. Typological constraints of NFC 19 1.4.1. Application consequences and their direct constraints 20 1.5. Applicational constraints on antenna design 21 Chapter 2. Introduction to and Recap of the Principles Employed in NFC 23 2.1. The physical fundaments of contactless and NFC 23 2.1.1. Phenomenon of propagation and radiation 23 2.1.2. Classification of fields and spatial regions 24 2.1.3. Spatial regions 24 2.1.4. Far field: r " /2 (Fraunhofer zone) 24 2.1.5. Intermediary field: r approximately equal to (Fresnel zone) 25 2.1.6. Near field: r " /2 (Rayleigh zone) and by essence, the origin of the NF Near Field , and hence NFC 25 2.1.7. Remarks on contactless, RFID and NFC application 25 2.2. The concept of NFC 27 2.2.1. Biot Savart law 28 2.2.2. Field H at a point on the axis of a circular antenna 28 2.2.3. Decrease in the field H as a function of d 31 2.2.4. Field H at a point on the axis of a rectangular antenna 32 Part 2. Methods and Designs for NFC Device Antennas 35 Introduction to Part 2 37 Chapter 3. Initiator Antennas: Detailed Calculations 41 3.1. Introduction 41 3.1.1. There are initiators and there are initiators 41 3.2. Design of an initiator antenna (without influence from the outside environment) 42 3.2.1. Operating mode 43 3.2.2. Instructive recap 45 3.2.3. Choice of integrated circuit 54 3.2.4. Legislational constraining aspects and EMC pollution 59 3.2.5. EMC filtering 60 3.2.6. Choice of target used and incidence of its H-threshold 73 3.2.7. Determining the inductance value of the initiator antenna 75 3.2.8. Simple antenna 82 3.2.9. Matching circuit for the impedance of the antenna 88 3.2.10. Calculating the current in the antenna coil of the initiator 93 3.2.11. Summary and examples 96 3.2.12. Simulations 98 3.2.13. Value of the field H radiated by the antenna 100 3.2.14. Calculation and value of the working distance 101 3.3. Maximum quality coefficient Q of the initiator antenna 101 3.3.1. Q and cutoff of the field 103 3.3.2. Decrease in the ISO field 106 3.3.3. Measuring Q in the application 108 3.3.4. Measurement of the bandwidth in the application 109 3.4. Brief handbook on the process of designing an antenna initiator 110 Chapter 4. Examples of Applications of Initiator Antennas 113 4.1. Large antennas 113 4.1.1. Communication with a mono-NFC device in card emulation battery-assisted mode 114 4.1.2. Communication multi-NFC devices in tag batteryless mode 114 4.2. Large antenna in mono-device 115 4.2.1. Mechanical formats of the NFC device targets 115 4.2.2. Form factors and sizes of antennas of the targets 115 4.2.3. Application distances required for operation 116 4.2.4. Estimation of the loading effects of the distance or working range 117 4.2.5. Environment (copper, ferrite, battery, etc.) 117 4.2.6. Several measures for illustrating our proposal 117 4.2.7. H-d field necessary for the NFC device target 119 4.2.8. H-0 necessary to create at the antenna level of the initiator 120 4.2.9. Power P (in watts) 120 4.2.10. Field H which must be produced by the initiator for a specific 120 4.2.11. Definition of the initiator antenna: format of the landing area of the reader (where one puts the target) 121 4.2.12. System considerations of the application 121 4.2.13. Market integrated circuits for direct attack of the antenna 122 4.2.14. Booster amplifiers 124 4.2.15. Problem of the retro-modulation value 128 4.3. Large antennas in multi-antennas 130 4.3.1. In simultaneous mode (temporarily non-multiplexed) 130 4.3.2. In multiplexed mode temporarily 133 4.4. Large antennas in multi-devices 135 4.4.1. Conclusions 137 4.5. Other examples of initiator antennas 138 Chapter 5. Antennas for Targets and Tags: Detailed Calculations 141 5.1. Introduction: there is a target and target 141 5.2. NFC Forum Tags 141 5.2.1. Technology Subset 142 5.3. Introduction to problems of antenna targets/tags 146 5.3.1. Tuning of the targets/tags 146 5.3.2. The inductance L 146 5.4. State-of-the-art of the antenna sizes 154 5.4.1. Sizes of the target antennas 155 5.4.2. Examples of applications of targets with antennas in ISO classes 157 5.5. Technological aspect of the NFC targets and tags 165 5.5.1. Data specific to integrated circuits for usage by NFC targets 165 5.5.2. Data specific to the additional capacities 165 5.5.3. Industrial data specific to antenna technology 165 5.5.4. Technology at stake 166 5.5.5. Estimation of the minimum number of antenna coils of the target to guarantee its remote power supply 171 Chapter 6. Detailed Examples of Designs of Target Antennas 173 6.1. Case of small antennas 173 6.1.1. Examples in classes 4, 5, 6 or close by 174 6.1.2. Example of design in class 5 175 6.1.3. Example 180 6.1.4. Example of design in class 6 182 6.2. Case of very small antennas 189 6.2.1. Example of design in classes 11, 12, 13 190 6.3. Case of the large NFC target/tag antennas: format A4 203 6.3.1. NFC bib number antennas for marathon and triathlon runners 203 6.3.2. Technical properties required by the NFC target/tag 204 6.4. Case of very large antennas targets: format A3 205 6.4.1. Context and technical frame of the large antennas 205 6.4.2. Retained concept 206 6.4.3. Example of network with four antennas 213 6.4.4. Simplification of the equation 216 Chapter 7. The Initiator Target Couple and Its Couplings 233 7.1. Circuits and their couplings 234 7.1.1. Mutual induction and mutual inductance 235 7.1.2. Perfect mutual 237 7.1.3. Non-perfect mutual 238 7.1.4. Coupling coefficient k 242 7.2. Tuned circuits coupled by mutual induction 244 7.2.1. Why almost ? 245 7.2.2. Coupling index n 246 7.2.3. In conclusion, an important point 247 7.3. Identical coupled circuits, tuned to the same frequency 248 7.3.1. Transfer function, A( ) = V2/V1, in terms of the voltage of the secondary 250 7.3.2. Transmission coefficient Kt 251 7.3.3. In summary 252 7.3.4. Operation in the vicinity of the resonance frequency f0 255 Chapter 8. The Initiator Target Couple and the Loading Effect 271 8.1. Loading effect by coupling 271 8.2. Coupled tuned antennas in terms of the primary current 272 8.2.1. Primary (initiator) non-loaded (no target within the field) 273 8.2.2. Primary (initiator) with a load (presence of target(s) in the field) 274 8.2.3. Value of R2 in view of the environment 277 8.3. Some food for thought 278 8.4. Loading effect 281 8.4.1. Definition and comments 281 8.4.2. Parameters involved in the loading effect 282 8.4.3. Variation of the working distance and thus of the coupling 285 8.4.4. Magnetic coupling and its consequences 285 8.4.5. Performances required by the initiator: loading effect on the value of the remote power supply to the target 286 8.4.6. Quality of the emitted magnetic field 287 8.4.7. Examples of coupling coefficients and loading effects 295 8.4.8. Shunt circuit in NFC 302 8.5. Appendix: how do we approach an NFC project? 307 Conclusion 309 Bibliography 317 Index 319


Szczegóły: Antenna Designs for NFC Devices - Dominique Paret

Tytuł: Antenna Designs for NFC Devices
Autor: Dominique Paret
Producent: ISTE Publishing Company
ISBN: 9781848218413
Rok produkcji: 2016
Ilość stron: 344
Oprawa: Twarda
Waga: 0.67 kg


Recenzje: Antenna Designs for NFC Devices - Dominique Paret

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Antenna Designs for NFC Devices

Near-field communication (NFC) enables the exchange of information between close devices. The antenna is the indispensable element to transform an electronic device into an NFC system. For both theory and practice, this book presents in detail the design technologies of different antennas. They must meet the NFC ISO 18 092 and 21 481 standards as well as specifications by the NFC Forum for industrial applications, by EMVCo for banking applications and payments, and by CEN for public transport. In a particularly pedagogic way, Antenna Designs for NFC Devices enables designers of communicating object systems and the Internet of Things (IoT) to have access to the mysteries of the design of NFC antennas.Acknowledgments xi Preface xiii Introduction xvii Part 1. Context 1 Introduction to Part 1 3 Chapter 1. Recap of the Constraints Governing the Design of Antennas for an NFC Device 5 1.1. Normative constraints 6 1.1.1. Uplink from initiator to targets 7 1.1.2. Downlink from targets to initiator 8 1.1.3. Contactless standards versus NFC device antennas 10 1.1.4. Technologies 12 1.1.5. NFC Forum Devices and NFC Forum Tags 12 1.1.6. Modes of communication of an NFC Forum Device 14 1.1.7. Role of an NFC Forum Device 16 1.1.8. Beware of false advertising 17 1.2. Regulatory constraints 17 1.2.1. RF regulations 17 1.3. Constraints on the NFC market 18 1.4. Typological constraints of NFC 19 1.4.1. Application consequences and their direct constraints 20 1.5. Applicational constraints on antenna design 21 Chapter 2. Introduction to and Recap of the Principles Employed in NFC 23 2.1. The physical fundaments of contactless and NFC 23 2.1.1. Phenomenon of propagation and radiation 23 2.1.2. Classification of fields and spatial regions 24 2.1.3. Spatial regions 24 2.1.4. Far field: r " /2 (Fraunhofer zone) 24 2.1.5. Intermediary field: r approximately equal to (Fresnel zone) 25 2.1.6. Near field: r " /2 (Rayleigh zone) and by essence, the origin of the NF Near Field , and hence NFC 25 2.1.7. Remarks on contactless, RFID and NFC application 25 2.2. The concept of NFC 27 2.2.1. Biot Savart law 28 2.2.2. Field H at a point on the axis of a circular antenna 28 2.2.3. Decrease in the field H as a function of d 31 2.2.4. Field H at a point on the axis of a rectangular antenna 32 Part 2. Methods and Designs for NFC Device Antennas 35 Introduction to Part 2 37 Chapter 3. Initiator Antennas: Detailed Calculations 41 3.1. Introduction 41 3.1.1. There are initiators and there are initiators 41 3.2. Design of an initiator antenna (without influence from the outside environment) 42 3.2.1. Operating mode 43 3.2.2. Instructive recap 45 3.2.3. Choice of integrated circuit 54 3.2.4. Legislational constraining aspects and EMC pollution 59 3.2.5. EMC filtering 60 3.2.6. Choice of target used and incidence of its H-threshold 73 3.2.7. Determining the inductance value of the initiator antenna 75 3.2.8. Simple antenna 82 3.2.9. Matching circuit for the impedance of the antenna 88 3.2.10. Calculating the current in the antenna coil of the initiator 93 3.2.11. Summary and examples 96 3.2.12. Simulations 98 3.2.13. Value of the field H radiated by the antenna 100 3.2.14. Calculation and value of the working distance 101 3.3. Maximum quality coefficient Q of the initiator antenna 101 3.3.1. Q and cutoff of the field 103 3.3.2. Decrease in the ISO field 106 3.3.3. Measuring Q in the application 108 3.3.4. Measurement of the bandwidth in the application 109 3.4. Brief handbook on the process of designing an antenna initiator 110 Chapter 4. Examples of Applications of Initiator Antennas 113 4.1. Large antennas 113 4.1.1. Communication with a mono-NFC device in card emulation battery-assisted mode 114 4.1.2. Communication multi-NFC devices in tag batteryless mode 114 4.2. Large antenna in mono-device 115 4.2.1. Mechanical formats of the NFC device targets 115 4.2.2. Form factors and sizes of antennas of the targets 115 4.2.3. Application distances required for operation 116 4.2.4. Estimation of the loading effects of the distance or working range 117 4.2.5. Environment (copper, ferrite, battery, etc.) 117 4.2.6. Several measures for illustrating our proposal 117 4.2.7. H-d field necessary for the NFC device target 119 4.2.8. H-0 necessary to create at the antenna level of the initiator 120 4.2.9. Power P (in watts) 120 4.2.10. Field H which must be produced by the initiator for a specific 120 4.2.11. Definition of the initiator antenna: format of the landing area of the reader (where one puts the target) 121 4.2.12. System considerations of the application 121 4.2.13. Market integrated circuits for direct attack of the antenna 122 4.2.14. Booster amplifiers 124 4.2.15. Problem of the retro-modulation value 128 4.3. Large antennas in multi-antennas 130 4.3.1. In simultaneous mode (temporarily non-multiplexed) 130 4.3.2. In multiplexed mode temporarily 133 4.4. Large antennas in multi-devices 135 4.4.1. Conclusions 137 4.5. Other examples of initiator antennas 138 Chapter 5. Antennas for Targets and Tags: Detailed Calculations 141 5.1. Introduction: there is a target and target 141 5.2. NFC Forum Tags 141 5.2.1. Technology Subset 142 5.3. Introduction to problems of antenna targets/tags 146 5.3.1. Tuning of the targets/tags 146 5.3.2. The inductance L 146 5.4. State-of-the-art of the antenna sizes 154 5.4.1. Sizes of the target antennas 155 5.4.2. Examples of applications of targets with antennas in ISO classes 157 5.5. Technological aspect of the NFC targets and tags 165 5.5.1. Data specific to integrated circuits for usage by NFC targets 165 5.5.2. Data specific to the additional capacities 165 5.5.3. Industrial data specific to antenna technology 165 5.5.4. Technology at stake 166 5.5.5. Estimation of the minimum number of antenna coils of the target to guarantee its remote power supply 171 Chapter 6. Detailed Examples of Designs of Target Antennas 173 6.1. Case of small antennas 173 6.1.1. Examples in classes 4, 5, 6 or close by 174 6.1.2. Example of design in class 5 175 6.1.3. Example 180 6.1.4. Example of design in class 6 182 6.2. Case of very small antennas 189 6.2.1. Example of design in classes 11, 12, 13 190 6.3. Case of the large NFC target/tag antennas: format A4 203 6.3.1. NFC bib number antennas for marathon and triathlon runners 203 6.3.2. Technical properties required by the NFC target/tag 204 6.4. Case of very large antennas targets: format A3 205 6.4.1. Context and technical frame of the large antennas 205 6.4.2. Retained concept 206 6.4.3. Example of network with four antennas 213 6.4.4. Simplification of the equation 216 Chapter 7. The Initiator Target Couple and Its Couplings 233 7.1. Circuits and their couplings 234 7.1.1. Mutual induction and mutual inductance 235 7.1.2. Perfect mutual 237 7.1.3. Non-perfect mutual 238 7.1.4. Coupling coefficient k 242 7.2. Tuned circuits coupled by mutual induction 244 7.2.1. Why almost ? 245 7.2.2. Coupling index n 246 7.2.3. In conclusion, an important point 247 7.3. Identical coupled circuits, tuned to the same frequency 248 7.3.1. Transfer function, A( ) = V2/V1, in terms of the voltage of the secondary 250 7.3.2. Transmission coefficient Kt 251 7.3.3. In summary 252 7.3.4. Operation in the vicinity of the resonance frequency f0 255 Chapter 8. The Initiator Target Couple and the Loading Effect 271 8.1. Loading effect by coupling 271 8.2. Coupled tuned antennas in terms of the primary current 272 8.2.1. Primary (initiator) non-loaded (no target within the field) 273 8.2.2. Primary (initiator) with a load (presence of target(s) in the field) 274 8.2.3. Value of R2 in view of the environment 277 8.3. Some food for thought 278 8.4. Loading effect 281 8.4.1. Definition and comments 281 8.4.2. Parameters involved in the loading effect 282 8.4.3. Variation of the working distance and thus of the coupling 285 8.4.4. Magnetic coupling and its consequences 285 8.4.5. Performances required by the initiator: loading effect on the value of the remote power supply to the target 286 8.4.6. Quality of the emitted magnetic field 287 8.4.7. Examples of coupling coefficients and loading effects 295 8.4.8. Shunt circuit in NFC 302 8.5. Appendix: how do we approach an NFC project? 307 Conclusion 309 Bibliography 317 Index 319

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Szczegóły: Antenna Designs for NFC Devices - Dominique Paret

Tytuł: Antenna Designs for NFC Devices
Autor: Dominique Paret
Producent: ISTE Publishing Company
ISBN: 9781848218413
Rok produkcji: 2016
Ilość stron: 344
Oprawa: Twarda
Waga: 0.67 kg


Recenzje: Antenna Designs for NFC Devices - Dominique Paret

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