Subsurface Drainage of Valley Bottom Irrigated Rice Schemes in Tropical Savannah

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Opis: Subsurface Drainage of Valley Bottom Irrigated Rice Schemes in Tropical Savannah - Amadou Keita

This study was built to investigate the impact of subsurface drainage on iron toxicity in Tropical Savannah irrigated rice valley bottoms. The research leaned upon two complementary approaches: field investigations and designed experiments. Important results, covering several fields, where achieved. For example, It appeared that single-season irrigation schemes present higher iron toxicity and acidity risks than double-season ones - 750 up to 1800 mg/l of Fe2+ higher in the single-season scheme of Moussodougou than in the double-season scheme of Tiefora. Furthermore, a statistical analysis of flow time series (ARIMA model) data was performed. It showed that with a simple water level measurement probe installed at the main gate of the scheme, it becomes possible not only to quantify irrigation water consumption, but also to diagnose farmers' irrigation schedule, providing them a means to defuse potential conflicts due to inequity in water distribution. Finally, it was shown that subsurface drainage increases ferrous iron concentration in hematite dominant soils soil - from 935 mg/l to more than 1106 mg/l in the case of the soil of Moussodougou - but also fortunately alleviate soil acidity - from pH 5.6 to 7.3 in Moussodougou. This effect will eventually reduce ferrous iron intake by rice roots, alleviating toxicity.1. Introduction 1.1. Background and Objectives 1.1.1. Problem Statement 1.1.2. Research Questions 1.1.3. Research Objectives 1.1.4. Expected Results 1.2. Scope 1.3. Structure of the Thesis 2. Literature Review 2.1. Tropical Savannah in Africa 2.2. Soil Genesis 2.3. The Prominence of Iron and Clay 2.4. Differences between Valley Bottom and Upland Soils 2.5. Iron Toxicity 2.6. Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria in Soils 2.6.1. The Flooded Rice Ecosystem 2.6.2. Iron and Sulphate Reducing Bacteria 2.6.3. The Bacteria Against Nematodes 2.6.4. The Reduction Processes 2.7. Subsurface Drainage 2.8. Concluding Remarks and Knowledge Gaps 3. Material and Methods 3.1. The Two Study Areas 3.2. The Site of Tiefora 3.2.1. Geographic Location 3.2.2. Population 3.2.3. Climate 3.2.4. The Dam 3.2.5. The Valley Bottem Irrigation Scheme 3.2.6. Topography and Valley History 3.2.7. The Pedology and the Reasons of Choosing Plain III 3.2.8. The Problems 3.3. The Site of Moussodougou 3.3.1. Location and Activities 3.3.2. The Problems 3.4. Project Components 3.4.1. First Component 3.4.2. Second Component 4. Irrigation Systems Prediagnoses and Update 4.1. Diagnosing and Mapping Tiefora Valley Bottom 4.2. Lessons from Valley Bottom Irrigated Rice Fields of Valley du Kou 4.3. Diagnosing and Mapping Moussodougou Valley Bottom 5. Clay and Ferrous Iron Stratifications 5.1. Soil Sampling and Measurements 5.2. Statistical Analyses 5.3. Clay Stratification Occurence 5.4. Ferrous Iron Concentration in the Rootzone 5.5. Conclusions 6. Higher Iron Toxicity Risk in Single-Season Irrigation 6.1. Soil Sampling 6.2. Measurements 6.3. Statistical Analysis 6.4. Geochemistry 6.5. Conditions Check for Hypotheses Testing 6.6. Statistical Results 6.7. Geochemical Analysis 6.8. Conclusions 7 . Clay Distribution and Adapted Drainage 7.1. Soil Sampling 7.2. Statistical Analysis 7.3. Soil Texture 7.4. Finding a Regression Model 7.5. Regression Goodness of Fit 7.6. Soil Hydraulics Analysis 7.7. Conclusions 8. Infiltration Rate Increase from Upstream in a Valley 8.1. Boreholes Preparation 8.2. Under Phreatic Infiltration Rate Measurements 8.3. Statistical Analysis 8.4. Selecting a Regression Model 8.5. Regression Goodness of Fit Checks 8.6. Cross Sectional Permeability Comparisons 8.7. Conclusions 9. Water Management Using Autocorrelation 9.1. Water Level Diver Installation 9.2. Assessment of Irrigation Water Use During the Seasons 9.3. Statistical Analysis 9.3.1. Removing Outliers and Stabilizing the Variance 9.3.2. ARIMA Model 9.3.3. Autocorrelation 9.3.4. Partial Autocorrelation PACF 9.4. Assessing the Water Use Along the Two Seasons 9.5. Assessing the Irrigation Schedule by a Seasonal ARIMA Model 9.6. Conclusions 10. Drainage and Liming Impacts on Ferrous Iron 10.1. Material and Methods 10.1.1. Bucket Experiment Design 10.1.2. Implementation of the Bucket Experiment 10.1.3. Statistical Analysis of the Bucket Experiment 10.1.4. Microplot Experiment Design 10.1.5. Implementation of the Microplot Experiment 10.1.6. Statistical Analysis of the Microplot Experiment 10.2. Results and Discussion 10.2.1. Pre-ANOVA Requirement Checks for Both Experiments 10.2.2. Post-ANOVA Requirement Checks for Both Experiments 10.2.3. Increase in Ferrous Iron but Decrease in Soil Acidity 10.2.4. Improvement of Soil Resistance to Iron Intoxication 10.3. Conclusions 11. Evaluation and Perspectives 11.1. Scientific and Engineering Insights 11.1.1. Iron and Clay Stratification in Some Valley Bottoms 11.1.2. How Hematite Soils Differ from Pyrite Soil with Mangroves 11.1.3. Permeability and Clay Analyses by Regression 11.1.4. Water Use Analysis: Critical for Irrigation Improvement 11.1.5. Microplot Experiments: Efficient to Track Soil Response 11.2. Socio Economic Impact of the Research Project 11.2.1. Tiefora 11.2.2. Moussodougou 11.2.3. Social Media 12. References Annexes. A. List of Symbols B. Acronyms C. Bucket Experiment Data Tables D. Tiefora Farmers and Plot Sizes E. Moussodougou Farmers and Plot Sizes F. Microplot Experiments Data and Results G. Samenvattting H. Sommaire (Langue Francaise) I. Sourouma (Bamanan Kan) J. About the Author


Szczegóły: Subsurface Drainage of Valley Bottom Irrigated Rice Schemes in Tropical Savannah - Amadou Keita

Tytuł: Subsurface Drainage of Valley Bottom Irrigated Rice Schemes in Tropical Savannah
Autor: Amadou Keita
Producent: CRC Press Inc.
ISBN: 9781138028166
Rok produkcji: 2015
Ilość stron: 222
Oprawa: Miękka
Waga: 0.36 kg


Recenzje: Subsurface Drainage of Valley Bottom Irrigated Rice Schemes in Tropical Savannah - Amadou Keita

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Subsurface Drainage of Valley Bottom Irrigated Rice Schemes in Tropical Savannah

This study was built to investigate the impact of subsurface drainage on iron toxicity in Tropical Savannah irrigated rice valley bottoms. The research leaned upon two complementary approaches: field investigations and designed experiments. Important results, covering several fields, where achieved. For example, It appeared that single-season irrigation schemes present higher iron toxicity and acidity risks than double-season ones - 750 up to 1800 mg/l of Fe2+ higher in the single-season scheme of Moussodougou than in the double-season scheme of Tiefora. Furthermore, a statistical analysis of flow time series (ARIMA model) data was performed. It showed that with a simple water level measurement probe installed at the main gate of the scheme, it becomes possible not only to quantify irrigation water consumption, but also to diagnose farmers' irrigation schedule, providing them a means to defuse potential conflicts due to inequity in water distribution. Finally, it was shown that subsurface drainage increases ferrous iron concentration in hematite dominant soils soil - from 935 mg/l to more than 1106 mg/l in the case of the soil of Moussodougou - but also fortunately alleviate soil acidity - from pH 5.6 to 7.3 in Moussodougou. This effect will eventually reduce ferrous iron intake by rice roots, alleviating toxicity.1. Introduction 1.1. Background and Objectives 1.1.1. Problem Statement 1.1.2. Research Questions 1.1.3. Research Objectives 1.1.4. Expected Results 1.2. Scope 1.3. Structure of the Thesis 2. Literature Review 2.1. Tropical Savannah in Africa 2.2. Soil Genesis 2.3. The Prominence of Iron and Clay 2.4. Differences between Valley Bottom and Upland Soils 2.5. Iron Toxicity 2.6. Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria in Soils 2.6.1. The Flooded Rice Ecosystem 2.6.2. Iron and Sulphate Reducing Bacteria 2.6.3. The Bacteria Against Nematodes 2.6.4. The Reduction Processes 2.7. Subsurface Drainage 2.8. Concluding Remarks and Knowledge Gaps 3. Material and Methods 3.1. The Two Study Areas 3.2. The Site of Tiefora 3.2.1. Geographic Location 3.2.2. Population 3.2.3. Climate 3.2.4. The Dam 3.2.5. The Valley Bottem Irrigation Scheme 3.2.6. Topography and Valley History 3.2.7. The Pedology and the Reasons of Choosing Plain III 3.2.8. The Problems 3.3. The Site of Moussodougou 3.3.1. Location and Activities 3.3.2. The Problems 3.4. Project Components 3.4.1. First Component 3.4.2. Second Component 4. Irrigation Systems Prediagnoses and Update 4.1. Diagnosing and Mapping Tiefora Valley Bottom 4.2. Lessons from Valley Bottom Irrigated Rice Fields of Valley du Kou 4.3. Diagnosing and Mapping Moussodougou Valley Bottom 5. Clay and Ferrous Iron Stratifications 5.1. Soil Sampling and Measurements 5.2. Statistical Analyses 5.3. Clay Stratification Occurence 5.4. Ferrous Iron Concentration in the Rootzone 5.5. Conclusions 6. Higher Iron Toxicity Risk in Single-Season Irrigation 6.1. Soil Sampling 6.2. Measurements 6.3. Statistical Analysis 6.4. Geochemistry 6.5. Conditions Check for Hypotheses Testing 6.6. Statistical Results 6.7. Geochemical Analysis 6.8. Conclusions 7 . Clay Distribution and Adapted Drainage 7.1. Soil Sampling 7.2. Statistical Analysis 7.3. Soil Texture 7.4. Finding a Regression Model 7.5. Regression Goodness of Fit 7.6. Soil Hydraulics Analysis 7.7. Conclusions 8. Infiltration Rate Increase from Upstream in a Valley 8.1. Boreholes Preparation 8.2. Under Phreatic Infiltration Rate Measurements 8.3. Statistical Analysis 8.4. Selecting a Regression Model 8.5. Regression Goodness of Fit Checks 8.6. Cross Sectional Permeability Comparisons 8.7. Conclusions 9. Water Management Using Autocorrelation 9.1. Water Level Diver Installation 9.2. Assessment of Irrigation Water Use During the Seasons 9.3. Statistical Analysis 9.3.1. Removing Outliers and Stabilizing the Variance 9.3.2. ARIMA Model 9.3.3. Autocorrelation 9.3.4. Partial Autocorrelation PACF 9.4. Assessing the Water Use Along the Two Seasons 9.5. Assessing the Irrigation Schedule by a Seasonal ARIMA Model 9.6. Conclusions 10. Drainage and Liming Impacts on Ferrous Iron 10.1. Material and Methods 10.1.1. Bucket Experiment Design 10.1.2. Implementation of the Bucket Experiment 10.1.3. Statistical Analysis of the Bucket Experiment 10.1.4. Microplot Experiment Design 10.1.5. Implementation of the Microplot Experiment 10.1.6. Statistical Analysis of the Microplot Experiment 10.2. Results and Discussion 10.2.1. Pre-ANOVA Requirement Checks for Both Experiments 10.2.2. Post-ANOVA Requirement Checks for Both Experiments 10.2.3. Increase in Ferrous Iron but Decrease in Soil Acidity 10.2.4. Improvement of Soil Resistance to Iron Intoxication 10.3. Conclusions 11. Evaluation and Perspectives 11.1. Scientific and Engineering Insights 11.1.1. Iron and Clay Stratification in Some Valley Bottoms 11.1.2. How Hematite Soils Differ from Pyrite Soil with Mangroves 11.1.3. Permeability and Clay Analyses by Regression 11.1.4. Water Use Analysis: Critical for Irrigation Improvement 11.1.5. Microplot Experiments: Efficient to Track Soil Response 11.2. Socio Economic Impact of the Research Project 11.2.1. Tiefora 11.2.2. Moussodougou 11.2.3. Social Media 12. References Annexes. A. List of Symbols B. Acronyms C. Bucket Experiment Data Tables D. Tiefora Farmers and Plot Sizes E. Moussodougou Farmers and Plot Sizes F. Microplot Experiments Data and Results G. Samenvattting H. Sommaire (Langue Francaise) I. Sourouma (Bamanan Kan) J. About the Author

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Cena 291,00 PLN
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Szczegóły: Subsurface Drainage of Valley Bottom Irrigated Rice Schemes in Tropical Savannah - Amadou Keita

Tytuł: Subsurface Drainage of Valley Bottom Irrigated Rice Schemes in Tropical Savannah
Autor: Amadou Keita
Producent: CRC Press Inc.
ISBN: 9781138028166
Rok produkcji: 2015
Ilość stron: 222
Oprawa: Miękka
Waga: 0.36 kg


Recenzje: Subsurface Drainage of Valley Bottom Irrigated Rice Schemes in Tropical Savannah - Amadou Keita

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