Pesticides

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Opis: Pesticides - Graham Matthewsk

Crop protection continues to be an important component of modern farming to maintain food production to feed an expanding human population, but considerable changes have occurred in the regulation of pesticides in Europe in the last decade. The aim has been to reduce their impact on people and the environment. This has resulted in a major reduction in the number of chemicals approved for application on crops. In other parts of the world, a continuing expansion in the growing of genetically modified crops has also changed the pattern of pesticide use. In this second edition, Graham Matthews, updates how pesticides are registered and applied and the techniques used to mitigate their effects in the environment. Information on operator safety, protection of workers in crops treated with pesticides and spray drift affecting those who live in farming areas is also discussed. By bringing together the most recent research on pesticides in a single volume, this book provides a vital up to date resource for agricultural scientists, agronomists, plant scientists, plant pathologists, entomologists, environmental scientists, public health personnel, toxicologists and others working in the agrochemical industry and governments. It should assist development of improvements in harmonising regulation of pesticides in countries with limited resources for registration of pesticides.Preface to the first edition vii Preface to second edition ix Acknowledgements x 1 Pesticides and agricultural development 1 Principal pesticides 5 Insecticides 6 Herbicides 9 Fungicides 11 Rodenticides 12 Crop distribution 12 Major crops 13 2 Approval of pesticides 33 Retrospective assessment 43 Environmental aspects 44 Endocrine disrupters 48 Approval in relation to efficacy 49 Operator proficiency 50 Storage and waste management 51 3 Application of pesticides 57 Hydraulic sprayers 57 Hydraulic nozzles 65 Sprayer testing 73 Rotary atomisers 73 Compression sprayers 75 Knapsack sprayers 77 Home and garden use 80 Weed wipers 80 Space treatment equipment 81 Granule application 84 Seed treatment 85 Storage of pesticides and equipment 86 Timing and number of spray applications 87 4 Operator exposure 92 Methodology of measuring exposure 102 Exposure of hands 107 Inhalation exposure 108 Biomonitoring 110 First aid 112 Periods of exposure 114 5 Spray drift, bystander, resident and worker exposure 129 What is drift? 131 How is drift measured? 132 Bystander exposure 137 Residential exposure 143 Worker exposure 150 6 Environmental aspects of spray drift 159 Protecting water 159 Protecting vegetation 174 Overall environmental impact assessments 184 Pesticide misuse affecting wildlife 190 7 Residues in food 201 8 The future of pesticides 225 Weed management 227 Disease management 229 Insect management 229 IPM 232 Traditional plant breeding 234 Present day pesticides 236 Herbicides 236 Fungicides 236 Insecticides 237 Other insecticides 239 Biopesticides 240 More selective applications 242 Pheromones 243 GM crops 244 Perceptions and hopes for the future 246 Appendix 1 Standard terms and abbreviations 253 Appendix 2 Checklist of important actions for pesticide users 264 Index 266


Szczegóły: Pesticides - Graham Matthewsk

Tytuł: Pesticides
Autor: Graham Matthewsk
Wydawnictwo: John Wiley
ISBN: 9781118975862
Rok wydania: 2015
Ilość stron: 296
Oprawa: Twarda
Waga: 0.63 kg


Recenzje: Pesticides - Graham Matthewsk

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Pesticides

Crop protection continues to be an important component of modern farming to maintain food production to feed an expanding human population, but considerable changes have occurred in the regulation of pesticides in Europe in the last decade. The aim has been to reduce their impact on people and the environment. This has resulted in a major reduction in the number of chemicals approved for application on crops. In other parts of the world, a continuing expansion in the growing of genetically modified crops has also changed the pattern of pesticide use. In this second edition, Graham Matthews, updates how pesticides are registered and applied and the techniques used to mitigate their effects in the environment. Information on operator safety, protection of workers in crops treated with pesticides and spray drift affecting those who live in farming areas is also discussed. By bringing together the most recent research on pesticides in a single volume, this book provides a vital up to date resource for agricultural scientists, agronomists, plant scientists, plant pathologists, entomologists, environmental scientists, public health personnel, toxicologists and others working in the agrochemical industry and governments. It should assist development of improvements in harmonising regulation of pesticides in countries with limited resources for registration of pesticides.Preface to the first edition vii Preface to second edition ix Acknowledgements x 1 Pesticides and agricultural development 1 Principal pesticides 5 Insecticides 6 Herbicides 9 Fungicides 11 Rodenticides 12 Crop distribution 12 Major crops 13 2 Approval of pesticides 33 Retrospective assessment 43 Environmental aspects 44 Endocrine disrupters 48 Approval in relation to efficacy 49 Operator proficiency 50 Storage and waste management 51 3 Application of pesticides 57 Hydraulic sprayers 57 Hydraulic nozzles 65 Sprayer testing 73 Rotary atomisers 73 Compression sprayers 75 Knapsack sprayers 77 Home and garden use 80 Weed wipers 80 Space treatment equipment 81 Granule application 84 Seed treatment 85 Storage of pesticides and equipment 86 Timing and number of spray applications 87 4 Operator exposure 92 Methodology of measuring exposure 102 Exposure of hands 107 Inhalation exposure 108 Biomonitoring 110 First aid 112 Periods of exposure 114 5 Spray drift, bystander, resident and worker exposure 129 What is drift? 131 How is drift measured? 132 Bystander exposure 137 Residential exposure 143 Worker exposure 150 6 Environmental aspects of spray drift 159 Protecting water 159 Protecting vegetation 174 Overall environmental impact assessments 184 Pesticide misuse affecting wildlife 190 7 Residues in food 201 8 The future of pesticides 225 Weed management 227 Disease management 229 Insect management 229 IPM 232 Traditional plant breeding 234 Present day pesticides 236 Herbicides 236 Fungicides 236 Insecticides 237 Other insecticides 239 Biopesticides 240 More selective applications 242 Pheromones 243 GM crops 244 Perceptions and hopes for the future 246 Appendix 1 Standard terms and abbreviations 253 Appendix 2 Checklist of important actions for pesticide users 264 Index 266

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