Polymer Morphology

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Opis: Polymer Morphology - Qipeng Guo

With a focus on structure-property relationships, this book describes how polymer morphology affects properties and how scientists can modify them. The book covers structure development, theory, simulation, and processing; and discusses a broad range of techniques and methods. Provides an up-to-date, comprehensive introduction to the principles and practices of polymer morphology Illustrates major structure types, such as semicrystalline morphology, surface-induced polymer crystallization, phase separation, self-assembly, deformation, and surface topography Covers a variety of polymers, such as homopolymers, block copolymers, polymer thin films, polymer blends, and polymer nanocomposites Discusses a broad range of advanced and novel techniques and methods, like x-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, and electron microscopy and their applications in the morphology of polymer materialsPREFACE xiii LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS xv PART I PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF CHARACTERIZATION 1 1 Overview and Prospects of Polymer Morphology 3 Jerold M. Schultz 1.1 Introductory Remarks 3 1.2 Experimental Avenues of Morphological Research 4 1.2.1 Morphological Characterization: The Enabling of in situ Measurements 4 1.2.2 Morphology Property Investigation 5 1.2.3 Morphology Development 7 1.3 Modeling and Simulation 8 1.3.1 Self-Generated Fields 9 1.4 Wishful Thinking 11 1.5 Summary 11 References 12 2 X-ray Diffraction from Polymers 14 N. Sanjeeva Murthy 2.1 Introduction 14 2.2 Basic Principles 14 2.3 Instrumentation 16 2.4 Structure Determination 17 2.4.1 Lattice Dimensions 17 2.4.2 Molecular Modeling 18 2.4.3 Rietveld Method 18 2.4.4 Pair Distribution Functions 18 2.5 Phase Analysis 19 2.5.1 Crystallinity Determination 20 2.5.2 Composition Analysis 21 2.6 Crystallite Size and Disorder 21 2.7 Orientation Analysis 22 2.7.1 Crystalline Orientation 22 2.7.2 Uniaxial Orientation 22 2.7.3 Biaxial Orientation 24 2.7.4 Amorphous Orientation 25 2.8 Small-Angle Scattering 25 2.8.1 Central Diffuse Scattering 26 2.8.2 Discrete Reflections from Lamellar Structures 27 2.8.3 Small-Angle Neutron Scattering and Solvent Diffusion 29 2.9 Specialized Measurements 30 2.9.1 In situ Experiments 30 2.9.2 Microbeam Diffraction 31 2.9.3 Grazing Incidence Diffraction 32 2.10 Summary 33 References 33 3 Electron Microscopy of Polymers 37 Goerg H. Michler and Werner Lebek 3.1 Introduction 37 3.2 Microscopic Techniques 37 3.2.1 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) 37 3.2.2 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) 42 3.2.3 Comparison of Different Microscopic Techniques 45 3.2.4 Image Processing and Image Analysis 46 3.3 Sample Preparation 47 3.4 In situ Microscopy 50 References 52 4 Characterization of Polymer Morphology by Scattering Techniques 54 Jean-Michel Guenet 4.1 Introduction 54 4.2 A Short Theoretical Presentation 55 4.2.1 General Expressions 55 4.2.2 The Form Factor 56 4.3 Experimental Aspects 60 4.3.1 The Contrast Factor 60 4.3.2 Experimental Setup 61 4.4 Typical Results 62 4.4.1 Neutrons Experiments: A Contrast Variation Story 62 4.4.2 X-Ray Experiments: A Time-Resolved Story 67 4.5 Concluding Remarks 69 References 69 5 Differential Scanning Calorimetry of Polymers 72 Alejandro J. Muller and Rose Mary Michell 5.1 Introduction to Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Basic Principles and Types of DSC Equipment 72 5.2 Detection of First-Order and Second-Order Transitions by DSC. Applications of Standard DSC Experiments to the Determination of the Glass Transition Temperature and the Melting Temperature of Polymeric Materials 74 5.3 Self-Nucleation 75 5.3.1 Quantification of the Nucleation Efficiency 77 5.4 Thermal Fractionation 78 5.5 Multiphasic Materials: Polymer Blends and Block Copolymers. Fractionated Crystallization and Confinement Effects 81 5.5.1 Blends and Fractionated Crystallization 81 5.5.2 Copolymers 85 5.5.3 Copolymers Versus Blends 87 5.5.4 The Crystallization of Polymers and Copolymers within Nanoporous Templates 88 5.6 Self-Nucleation and the Efficiency Scale to Evaluate Nucleation Power 91 5.6.1 Supernucleation 93 5.7 Determination of Overall Isothermal Crystallization by DSC 95 5.8 Conclusions 95 Acknowledgment 95 References 95 6 Imaging Polymer Morphology using Atomic Force Microscopy 100 Holger Schonherr 6.1 Introduction 100 6.2 Fundamental AFM Techniques 101 6.2.1 Contact Mode AFM 101 6.2.2 Intermittent Contact (Tapping) Mode AFM 104 6.2.3 Further Dynamic AFM Modes 105 6.3 Imaging of Polymer Morphology 107 6.3.1 Single Polymer Chains 107 6.3.2 Crystal Structures 107 6.3.3 Lamellar Crystals 109 6.3.4 Spherulites 109 6.3.5 Multiphase Systems 109 6.3.6 Polymeric Nanostructures 111 6.4 Property Mapping 113 6.4.1 Nanomechanical Properties 113 6.4.2 Scanning Thermal Microscopy 115 References 115 7 FTIR Imaging of Polymeric Materials 118 S. G. Kazarian and K. L. A. Chan 7.1 Introduction 118 7.2 Principles of FTIR Imaging 118 7.3 Sampling Methods 120 7.3.1 Transmission Mode 120 7.3.2 Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) Mode 121 7.4 Spatial Resolution 122 7.4.1 Transmission FTIR Imaging 123 7.4.2 ATR FTIR Spectroscopic Imaging 123 7.5 Recent Applications 124 7.5.1 Polymer Blends 124 7.5.2 Polymer Processes 125 7.5.3 Polarized FTIR Imaging for Orientation Studies 126 7.6 Conclusions 127 References 128 8 NMR Analysis of Morphology and Structure of Polymers 131 Takeshi Yamanobe and Hiroki Uehara 8.1 Introduction 131 8.2 Basic Concepts in NMR 131 8.2.1 Principles of NMR 131 8.2.2 Analysis of the Free Induction Decay (FID) 132 8.3 Morphology and Relaxation Behavior of Polyethylene 134 8.3.1 Morphology and Molecular Mobility 134 8.3.2 Lamellar Thickening by Annealing 134 8.3.3 Entanglement in the Amorphous Phase 136 8.4 Morphology and Structure of the Nascent Powders 137 8.4.1 Etching by Fuming Nitric Acid 137 8.4.2 Structural Change by Annealing 138 8.4.3 Nascent Isotactic Polypropylene Powder 139 8.5 Kinetics of Dynamic Process of Polymers 141 8.5.1 Melt Drawing of Polyethylene 141 8.5.2 Crystallization Mechanism of Nylon 46 143 8.5.3 Degree of Curing of Novolac Resins 145 8.6 Conclusions 146 References 146 PART II MORPHOLOGY PROPERTIES AND PROCESSING 151 9 Small-Angle X-ray Scattering for Morphological Analysis of Semicrystalline Polymers 153 Anne Seidlitz and Thomas Thurn-Albrecht 9.1 Introduction 153 9.2 Small-angle X-ray Scattering 153 9.2.1 Typical Experimental Setup 153 9.2.2 Basic Formalism Describing the Relation between Real-Space Structure and Scattering Intensity in a SAXS Experiment 154 9.2.3 Methods of Analysis Used for SAXS on Semicrystalline Polymers 155 9.3 Concluding Remarks 162 Appendix: Calculation of the Model Function KP sim(s) 163 References 163 10 Crystalline Morphology of Homopolymers and Block Copolymers 165 Shuichi Nojima and Hironori Marubayashi 10.1 Introduction 165 10.2 Crystalline Morphology of Homopolymers 165 10.2.1 Crystal Structure 165 10.2.2 Lamellar Morphology 167 10.2.3 Spherulite Structure 168 10.2.4 Crystalline Morphology of Homopolymers Confined in Isolated Nanodomains 168 10.2.5 Crystalline Morphology of Polymer Blends 169 10.3 Crystalline Morphology of Block Copolymers 171 10.3.1 Crystalline Morphology of Weakly Segregated Block Copolymers 172 10.3.2 Crystalline Morphology of Block Copolymers with Glassy Amorphous Blocks 173 10.3.3 Crystalline Morphology of Strongly Segregated Block Copolymers 174 10.3.4 Crystalline Morphology of Double Crystalline Block Copolymers 175 10.4 Concluding Remarks 176 References 176 11 Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Polymers 181 Alejandro J. Muller Rose Mary Michell and Arnaldo T. Lorenzo 11.1 Introduction 181 11.2 Crystallization Process 182 11.3 Crystallization Kinetics 182 11.3.1 The Avrami Equation [31] 183 11.3.2 Nucleation and Crystal Growth: Lauritzen Hofmann Theory 188 11.4 Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics Morphology Relationship 191 11.4.1 Linear PS-b-PCL versus Miktoarm (PS2)-b-(PCL2) Block Copolymers 191 11.4.2 Crystallization Kinetics and Morphology of PLLA-b-PCL Diblock Copolymers 194 11.4.3 Nucleation and Crystallization Kinetics of Double Crystalline Polyethylene/Polyamide (PE/PA) Blends 196 11.4.4 Crystallization Kinetics of Poly( -Caprolactone)/Carbon Nanotubes (PCL/CNTs) Blends 200 11.5 Conclusions 201 Acknowledgments 201 References 201 12 Surface-induced Polymer Crystallization 204 Xiaoli Sun and Shouke Yan 12.1 Introduction 204 12.2 Influence of Foreign Surface on the Crystallization Kinetics of Polymers 205 12.3 Influence of Foreign Surface on the Crystal Structure and Morphology of Polymers 205 12.3.1 Crystallization of Thin Polymer Films on Amorphous Foreign Surface 205 12.3.2 Crystallization of Polymer Thin Films on Crystalline Foreign Surface with Special Crystallographic Interaction 209 12.4 Bulk Crystallization of Polymers in Contact with a Foreign Surface 226 12.5 Summary 234 References 235 13 Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Polymer Crystallization 242 Wenbing Hu and Liyun Zha 13.1 Introduction 242 13.2 Thermodynamics of Polymer Crystallization 242 13.3 Crystal Nucleation 247 13.4 Crystal Growth 251 13.5 Crystal Annealing 254 13.6 Summary 255 References 256 14 Self-Assembly and Morphology in Block Copolymer Systems with Specific Interactions 259 Anbazhagan Palanisamy and Qipeng Guo 14.1 Introduction 259 14.2 Block Copolymer Systems with Hydrogen Bonding Interaction in Solid State 260 14.2.1 Diblock Copolymer/Homopolymer Systems 260 14.2.2 Diblock/Triblock Copolymer Systems 264 14.3 Block Copolymer Systems with Hydrogen-Bonding Interaction in Solution 268 14.3.1 Single-Component Block Copolymer Systems 268 14.3.2 Diblock Copolymer/Homopolymer Systems 269 14.3.3 Diblock/Diblock Copolymer Systems 271 14.3.4 Triblock Copolymer Systems 275 14.4 Block Copolymer Systems with Ionic Interaction 275 14.4.1 Diblock Copolymer/Homopolymer Systems 275 14.4.2 Diblock/Triblock Copolymer Systems 276 14.5 Block Copolymer Blends via Metal Ligand Coordination Bonds 278 14.6 Concluding Remarks 278 References 279 15 Dynamics Simulations of Microphase Separation in Block Copolymers 283 Xuehao He Xuejin Li Peng Chen and Haojun Liang 15.1 Introduction 283 15.2 Polymer Model and Simulation Algorithm 284 15.2.1 Monte Carlo Method 284 15.2.2 Dissipative Particle Dynamics Method 285 15.2.3 Polymeric Self-Consistent Field Theory 286 15.3 Dynamics of Self-Assembly of Block Copolymers 287 15.3.1 Phase Separation of Linear Block Copolymers 287 15.3.2 Self-Assembly of Star Block Copolymers in Melt 287 15.3.3 Self-Assembly of Block Copolymers in Constrained Systems 289 15.3.4 Micellization of Amphiphilic Block Copolymer in Solution 292 15.4 Outlook 294 References 295 16 Morphology Control of Polymer thin Films 299 Jiangang Liu Xinhong Yu Longjian Xue and Yanchun Han 16.1 Wetting 299 16.1.1 Dewetting Mechanisms 300 16.1.2 Dewetting Dynamics 301 16.1.3 Rim Instability 303 16.1.4 Factors Affecting the Stability of Polymer Thin Films 303 16.2 Thin Film of Polymer Blend 304 16.2.1 Fundamentals of Polymer Blends 305 16.2.2 Phase Separation in Thin Polymer Films 306 16.3 The Introduction of Polymer Blend Film in Solar Cells 307 16.3.1 Establish Interpenetrating Network Structure by Controlling Phase Separation 308 16.3.2 Control the Domain Size and Purify of the Domains 310 16.3.3 Adjust the Diffused Structure at the Interface Between Donor and Acceptor 312 16.3.4 Construct the Relationship Between Film Morphology and Device Performance 312 16.4 Summary and Outlook 313 References 313 17 Polymer Surface Topography and Nanomechanical Mapping 317 Hao Liu So Fujinami Dong Wang Ken Nakajima and Toshio Nishi 17.1 Introduction 317 17.2 Contact Mechanics 317 17.2.1 Hertzian Theory (Repulsion between Elastic Bodies) 318 17.2.2 Bradley Model (Interaction between Rigid Bodies) 318 17.2.3 Johnson Kendall Roberts (JKR) Model 318 17.2.4 Derjaguin Muller Toporov (DMT) Model 319 17.2.5 The JKR DMT transition and Maugis Dugdale (MD) Model 319 17.2.6 Adhesion Map 320 17.3 Application of Contact Mechanics to Experimental Data 321 17.3.1 Consideration of Contact Models 321 17.3.2 Force Distance Curve Conversion 321 17.3.3 Analysis of Load Indentation Curves 322 17.3.4 Nanomechanical Mapping 322 17.4 Application Examples 323 17.4.1 Effect of Processing Conditions on Morphology and Mechanical Properties of Block Copolymers 323 17.4.2 Measuring the Deformation of Both Ductile and Fragile Polymers 325 17.4.3 Nanorheological AFM on Rubbers 328 17.5 Conclusion 331 References 331 18 Polymer Morphology and Deformation Behavior 335 Masanori Hara 18.1 Introduction 335 18.2 Deformation Behavior of Amorphous Polymers 336 18.2.1 Deformation Behavior of Thin Films 336 18.2.2 Deformation Behavior of Bulk Polymers 338 18.3 Deformation Behavior of Semicrystalline Polymers 339 18.3.1 Deformation of Unoriented Semicrystalline Polymers 341 18.3.2 Strain Hardening and Network Density 341 18.4 Deformation Behavior of Block Copolymers 342 18.4.1 Block Copolymers Based on S and B 343 18.4.2 Block Copolymers Based on E and C (CHE) 345 18.5 Conclusions and Outlook 345 References 346 19 Morphology Development in Immiscible Polymer Blends 348 Ruth Cardinaels and Paula Moldenaers 19.1 Introduction 348 19.2 Morphology Development in Bulk Flow 350 19.2.1 Droplet Matrix Structures 350 19.2.2 Fibrillar Structures 359 19.2.3 Cocontinuous Structures 361 19.3 Recent Advances in Polymer Blends 363 19.3.1 Immiscible Blends in Confined Flow 363 19.3.2 Blend Compatibilization by Nanoparticles 364 19.4 Conclusions 367 Acknowledgments 368 References 368 20 Processing Structure and Morphology in Polymer Nanocomposites 374 Duraccio Donatella Clara Silvestre Sossio Cimmino Antonella Marra and Marilena Pezzuto 20.1 Overview 374 20.2 Nanoparticles with One Dimension Less Than 100 nm (Layered Silicates) 375 20.3 Nanoparticles with Two Dimensions Less Than 100 nm (Carbon Nanotubes) 377 20.4 Nanoparticles with Three Dimensions Less Than 100 nm (Metal Metal Oxide) 380 20.5 Preparative Methods 382 20.5.1 Solution Processing 382 20.5.2 In situ Polymerization 383 20.5.3 Melt Processing 384 20.5.4 In situ Sol Gel Technology 384 20.6 Structure and Morphology of Polymer Nanocomposites 385 20.7 Concluding Remarks 388 References 388 21 Morphology and Gas Barrier Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites 397 Abbas Ghanbari Marie-Claude Heuzey Pierre J. Carreau and Minh-Tan Ton-That 21.1 Introduction 397 21.2 Structure of Layered Silicates 397 21.3 Morphologies of Polymer-Layered Silicate Composites 398 21.4 Nanocomposite Preparation Methods 398 21.5 Challenges of Thermal Degradation in Melt Intercalation 400 21.6 Methods for Improving Gas Barrier Properties of Polymers 403 21.7 Polyamide Nanocomposites 405 21.8 Polyolefin Nanocomposites 405 21.9 Pet Nanocomposites 406 21.10 Polylactide Nanocomposites 413 21.11 Conclusions and Perspectives 414 References 415 22 Features on the Development and Stability of Phase Morphology in Complex Multicomponent Polymeric Systems: Main Focus on Processing Aspects 418 Charef Harrats Maria-Beatrice Coltelli and Gabriel Groeninckx 22.1 Introduction 418 22.2 Phase Morphology Development in Polymer Blends 419 22.2.1 Droplet-in-Matrix (Dispersed) Phase Morphology 419 22.2.2 Co-continuous Phase Morphology 419 22.2.3 Phase Morphology in Ternary Blends 420 22.3 Melt Processing of Polymer Blends 423 22.3.1 Morphology Buildup during Processing 423 22.3.2 Effects of Processing Parameters on Phase Morphology 424 22.4 Chemistry Involved in Polymer Blends 426 22.4.1 Effect of the Compatibilizer on Phase Morphology 426 22.4.2 Formation in situ of the Compatibilizer 427 22.4.3 Case of Reactive Ternary Blends 429 22.4.4 Stability of Phase Morphology in Reactively Compatibilized Blends 431 22.4.5 Organoclay-Promoted Phase Morphology 433 22.4.6 Conclusions 435 References 436 INDEX 439


Szczegóły: Polymer Morphology - Qipeng Guo

Tytuł: Polymer Morphology
Autor: Qipeng Guo
Wydawnictwo: John Wiley
ISBN: 9781118452158
Rok wydania: 2016
Ilość stron: 464
Oprawa: Twarda
Waga: 1.32 kg


Recenzje: Polymer Morphology - Qipeng Guo

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Książka

Polymer Morphology

With a focus on structure-property relationships, this book describes how polymer morphology affects properties and how scientists can modify them. The book covers structure development, theory, simulation, and processing; and discusses a broad range of techniques and methods. Provides an up-to-date, comprehensive introduction to the principles and practices of polymer morphology Illustrates major structure types, such as semicrystalline morphology, surface-induced polymer crystallization, phase separation, self-assembly, deformation, and surface topography Covers a variety of polymers, such as homopolymers, block copolymers, polymer thin films, polymer blends, and polymer nanocomposites Discusses a broad range of advanced and novel techniques and methods, like x-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, and electron microscopy and their applications in the morphology of polymer materialsPREFACE xiii LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS xv PART I PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF CHARACTERIZATION 1 1 Overview and Prospects of Polymer Morphology 3 Jerold M. Schultz 1.1 Introductory Remarks 3 1.2 Experimental Avenues of Morphological Research 4 1.2.1 Morphological Characterization: The Enabling of in situ Measurements 4 1.2.2 Morphology Property Investigation 5 1.2.3 Morphology Development 7 1.3 Modeling and Simulation 8 1.3.1 Self-Generated Fields 9 1.4 Wishful Thinking 11 1.5 Summary 11 References 12 2 X-ray Diffraction from Polymers 14 N. Sanjeeva Murthy 2.1 Introduction 14 2.2 Basic Principles 14 2.3 Instrumentation 16 2.4 Structure Determination 17 2.4.1 Lattice Dimensions 17 2.4.2 Molecular Modeling 18 2.4.3 Rietveld Method 18 2.4.4 Pair Distribution Functions 18 2.5 Phase Analysis 19 2.5.1 Crystallinity Determination 20 2.5.2 Composition Analysis 21 2.6 Crystallite Size and Disorder 21 2.7 Orientation Analysis 22 2.7.1 Crystalline Orientation 22 2.7.2 Uniaxial Orientation 22 2.7.3 Biaxial Orientation 24 2.7.4 Amorphous Orientation 25 2.8 Small-Angle Scattering 25 2.8.1 Central Diffuse Scattering 26 2.8.2 Discrete Reflections from Lamellar Structures 27 2.8.3 Small-Angle Neutron Scattering and Solvent Diffusion 29 2.9 Specialized Measurements 30 2.9.1 In situ Experiments 30 2.9.2 Microbeam Diffraction 31 2.9.3 Grazing Incidence Diffraction 32 2.10 Summary 33 References 33 3 Electron Microscopy of Polymers 37 Goerg H. Michler and Werner Lebek 3.1 Introduction 37 3.2 Microscopic Techniques 37 3.2.1 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) 37 3.2.2 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) 42 3.2.3 Comparison of Different Microscopic Techniques 45 3.2.4 Image Processing and Image Analysis 46 3.3 Sample Preparation 47 3.4 In situ Microscopy 50 References 52 4 Characterization of Polymer Morphology by Scattering Techniques 54 Jean-Michel Guenet 4.1 Introduction 54 4.2 A Short Theoretical Presentation 55 4.2.1 General Expressions 55 4.2.2 The Form Factor 56 4.3 Experimental Aspects 60 4.3.1 The Contrast Factor 60 4.3.2 Experimental Setup 61 4.4 Typical Results 62 4.4.1 Neutrons Experiments: A Contrast Variation Story 62 4.4.2 X-Ray Experiments: A Time-Resolved Story 67 4.5 Concluding Remarks 69 References 69 5 Differential Scanning Calorimetry of Polymers 72 Alejandro J. Muller and Rose Mary Michell 5.1 Introduction to Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Basic Principles and Types of DSC Equipment 72 5.2 Detection of First-Order and Second-Order Transitions by DSC. Applications of Standard DSC Experiments to the Determination of the Glass Transition Temperature and the Melting Temperature of Polymeric Materials 74 5.3 Self-Nucleation 75 5.3.1 Quantification of the Nucleation Efficiency 77 5.4 Thermal Fractionation 78 5.5 Multiphasic Materials: Polymer Blends and Block Copolymers. Fractionated Crystallization and Confinement Effects 81 5.5.1 Blends and Fractionated Crystallization 81 5.5.2 Copolymers 85 5.5.3 Copolymers Versus Blends 87 5.5.4 The Crystallization of Polymers and Copolymers within Nanoporous Templates 88 5.6 Self-Nucleation and the Efficiency Scale to Evaluate Nucleation Power 91 5.6.1 Supernucleation 93 5.7 Determination of Overall Isothermal Crystallization by DSC 95 5.8 Conclusions 95 Acknowledgment 95 References 95 6 Imaging Polymer Morphology using Atomic Force Microscopy 100 Holger Schonherr 6.1 Introduction 100 6.2 Fundamental AFM Techniques 101 6.2.1 Contact Mode AFM 101 6.2.2 Intermittent Contact (Tapping) Mode AFM 104 6.2.3 Further Dynamic AFM Modes 105 6.3 Imaging of Polymer Morphology 107 6.3.1 Single Polymer Chains 107 6.3.2 Crystal Structures 107 6.3.3 Lamellar Crystals 109 6.3.4 Spherulites 109 6.3.5 Multiphase Systems 109 6.3.6 Polymeric Nanostructures 111 6.4 Property Mapping 113 6.4.1 Nanomechanical Properties 113 6.4.2 Scanning Thermal Microscopy 115 References 115 7 FTIR Imaging of Polymeric Materials 118 S. G. Kazarian and K. L. A. Chan 7.1 Introduction 118 7.2 Principles of FTIR Imaging 118 7.3 Sampling Methods 120 7.3.1 Transmission Mode 120 7.3.2 Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) Mode 121 7.4 Spatial Resolution 122 7.4.1 Transmission FTIR Imaging 123 7.4.2 ATR FTIR Spectroscopic Imaging 123 7.5 Recent Applications 124 7.5.1 Polymer Blends 124 7.5.2 Polymer Processes 125 7.5.3 Polarized FTIR Imaging for Orientation Studies 126 7.6 Conclusions 127 References 128 8 NMR Analysis of Morphology and Structure of Polymers 131 Takeshi Yamanobe and Hiroki Uehara 8.1 Introduction 131 8.2 Basic Concepts in NMR 131 8.2.1 Principles of NMR 131 8.2.2 Analysis of the Free Induction Decay (FID) 132 8.3 Morphology and Relaxation Behavior of Polyethylene 134 8.3.1 Morphology and Molecular Mobility 134 8.3.2 Lamellar Thickening by Annealing 134 8.3.3 Entanglement in the Amorphous Phase 136 8.4 Morphology and Structure of the Nascent Powders 137 8.4.1 Etching by Fuming Nitric Acid 137 8.4.2 Structural Change by Annealing 138 8.4.3 Nascent Isotactic Polypropylene Powder 139 8.5 Kinetics of Dynamic Process of Polymers 141 8.5.1 Melt Drawing of Polyethylene 141 8.5.2 Crystallization Mechanism of Nylon 46 143 8.5.3 Degree of Curing of Novolac Resins 145 8.6 Conclusions 146 References 146 PART II MORPHOLOGY PROPERTIES AND PROCESSING 151 9 Small-Angle X-ray Scattering for Morphological Analysis of Semicrystalline Polymers 153 Anne Seidlitz and Thomas Thurn-Albrecht 9.1 Introduction 153 9.2 Small-angle X-ray Scattering 153 9.2.1 Typical Experimental Setup 153 9.2.2 Basic Formalism Describing the Relation between Real-Space Structure and Scattering Intensity in a SAXS Experiment 154 9.2.3 Methods of Analysis Used for SAXS on Semicrystalline Polymers 155 9.3 Concluding Remarks 162 Appendix: Calculation of the Model Function KP sim(s) 163 References 163 10 Crystalline Morphology of Homopolymers and Block Copolymers 165 Shuichi Nojima and Hironori Marubayashi 10.1 Introduction 165 10.2 Crystalline Morphology of Homopolymers 165 10.2.1 Crystal Structure 165 10.2.2 Lamellar Morphology 167 10.2.3 Spherulite Structure 168 10.2.4 Crystalline Morphology of Homopolymers Confined in Isolated Nanodomains 168 10.2.5 Crystalline Morphology of Polymer Blends 169 10.3 Crystalline Morphology of Block Copolymers 171 10.3.1 Crystalline Morphology of Weakly Segregated Block Copolymers 172 10.3.2 Crystalline Morphology of Block Copolymers with Glassy Amorphous Blocks 173 10.3.3 Crystalline Morphology of Strongly Segregated Block Copolymers 174 10.3.4 Crystalline Morphology of Double Crystalline Block Copolymers 175 10.4 Concluding Remarks 176 References 176 11 Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Polymers 181 Alejandro J. Muller Rose Mary Michell and Arnaldo T. Lorenzo 11.1 Introduction 181 11.2 Crystallization Process 182 11.3 Crystallization Kinetics 182 11.3.1 The Avrami Equation [31] 183 11.3.2 Nucleation and Crystal Growth: Lauritzen Hofmann Theory 188 11.4 Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics Morphology Relationship 191 11.4.1 Linear PS-b-PCL versus Miktoarm (PS2)-b-(PCL2) Block Copolymers 191 11.4.2 Crystallization Kinetics and Morphology of PLLA-b-PCL Diblock Copolymers 194 11.4.3 Nucleation and Crystallization Kinetics of Double Crystalline Polyethylene/Polyamide (PE/PA) Blends 196 11.4.4 Crystallization Kinetics of Poly( -Caprolactone)/Carbon Nanotubes (PCL/CNTs) Blends 200 11.5 Conclusions 201 Acknowledgments 201 References 201 12 Surface-induced Polymer Crystallization 204 Xiaoli Sun and Shouke Yan 12.1 Introduction 204 12.2 Influence of Foreign Surface on the Crystallization Kinetics of Polymers 205 12.3 Influence of Foreign Surface on the Crystal Structure and Morphology of Polymers 205 12.3.1 Crystallization of Thin Polymer Films on Amorphous Foreign Surface 205 12.3.2 Crystallization of Polymer Thin Films on Crystalline Foreign Surface with Special Crystallographic Interaction 209 12.4 Bulk Crystallization of Polymers in Contact with a Foreign Surface 226 12.5 Summary 234 References 235 13 Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Polymer Crystallization 242 Wenbing Hu and Liyun Zha 13.1 Introduction 242 13.2 Thermodynamics of Polymer Crystallization 242 13.3 Crystal Nucleation 247 13.4 Crystal Growth 251 13.5 Crystal Annealing 254 13.6 Summary 255 References 256 14 Self-Assembly and Morphology in Block Copolymer Systems with Specific Interactions 259 Anbazhagan Palanisamy and Qipeng Guo 14.1 Introduction 259 14.2 Block Copolymer Systems with Hydrogen Bonding Interaction in Solid State 260 14.2.1 Diblock Copolymer/Homopolymer Systems 260 14.2.2 Diblock/Triblock Copolymer Systems 264 14.3 Block Copolymer Systems with Hydrogen-Bonding Interaction in Solution 268 14.3.1 Single-Component Block Copolymer Systems 268 14.3.2 Diblock Copolymer/Homopolymer Systems 269 14.3.3 Diblock/Diblock Copolymer Systems 271 14.3.4 Triblock Copolymer Systems 275 14.4 Block Copolymer Systems with Ionic Interaction 275 14.4.1 Diblock Copolymer/Homopolymer Systems 275 14.4.2 Diblock/Triblock Copolymer Systems 276 14.5 Block Copolymer Blends via Metal Ligand Coordination Bonds 278 14.6 Concluding Remarks 278 References 279 15 Dynamics Simulations of Microphase Separation in Block Copolymers 283 Xuehao He Xuejin Li Peng Chen and Haojun Liang 15.1 Introduction 283 15.2 Polymer Model and Simulation Algorithm 284 15.2.1 Monte Carlo Method 284 15.2.2 Dissipative Particle Dynamics Method 285 15.2.3 Polymeric Self-Consistent Field Theory 286 15.3 Dynamics of Self-Assembly of Block Copolymers 287 15.3.1 Phase Separation of Linear Block Copolymers 287 15.3.2 Self-Assembly of Star Block Copolymers in Melt 287 15.3.3 Self-Assembly of Block Copolymers in Constrained Systems 289 15.3.4 Micellization of Amphiphilic Block Copolymer in Solution 292 15.4 Outlook 294 References 295 16 Morphology Control of Polymer thin Films 299 Jiangang Liu Xinhong Yu Longjian Xue and Yanchun Han 16.1 Wetting 299 16.1.1 Dewetting Mechanisms 300 16.1.2 Dewetting Dynamics 301 16.1.3 Rim Instability 303 16.1.4 Factors Affecting the Stability of Polymer Thin Films 303 16.2 Thin Film of Polymer Blend 304 16.2.1 Fundamentals of Polymer Blends 305 16.2.2 Phase Separation in Thin Polymer Films 306 16.3 The Introduction of Polymer Blend Film in Solar Cells 307 16.3.1 Establish Interpenetrating Network Structure by Controlling Phase Separation 308 16.3.2 Control the Domain Size and Purify of the Domains 310 16.3.3 Adjust the Diffused Structure at the Interface Between Donor and Acceptor 312 16.3.4 Construct the Relationship Between Film Morphology and Device Performance 312 16.4 Summary and Outlook 313 References 313 17 Polymer Surface Topography and Nanomechanical Mapping 317 Hao Liu So Fujinami Dong Wang Ken Nakajima and Toshio Nishi 17.1 Introduction 317 17.2 Contact Mechanics 317 17.2.1 Hertzian Theory (Repulsion between Elastic Bodies) 318 17.2.2 Bradley Model (Interaction between Rigid Bodies) 318 17.2.3 Johnson Kendall Roberts (JKR) Model 318 17.2.4 Derjaguin Muller Toporov (DMT) Model 319 17.2.5 The JKR DMT transition and Maugis Dugdale (MD) Model 319 17.2.6 Adhesion Map 320 17.3 Application of Contact Mechanics to Experimental Data 321 17.3.1 Consideration of Contact Models 321 17.3.2 Force Distance Curve Conversion 321 17.3.3 Analysis of Load Indentation Curves 322 17.3.4 Nanomechanical Mapping 322 17.4 Application Examples 323 17.4.1 Effect of Processing Conditions on Morphology and Mechanical Properties of Block Copolymers 323 17.4.2 Measuring the Deformation of Both Ductile and Fragile Polymers 325 17.4.3 Nanorheological AFM on Rubbers 328 17.5 Conclusion 331 References 331 18 Polymer Morphology and Deformation Behavior 335 Masanori Hara 18.1 Introduction 335 18.2 Deformation Behavior of Amorphous Polymers 336 18.2.1 Deformation Behavior of Thin Films 336 18.2.2 Deformation Behavior of Bulk Polymers 338 18.3 Deformation Behavior of Semicrystalline Polymers 339 18.3.1 Deformation of Unoriented Semicrystalline Polymers 341 18.3.2 Strain Hardening and Network Density 341 18.4 Deformation Behavior of Block Copolymers 342 18.4.1 Block Copolymers Based on S and B 343 18.4.2 Block Copolymers Based on E and C (CHE) 345 18.5 Conclusions and Outlook 345 References 346 19 Morphology Development in Immiscible Polymer Blends 348 Ruth Cardinaels and Paula Moldenaers 19.1 Introduction 348 19.2 Morphology Development in Bulk Flow 350 19.2.1 Droplet Matrix Structures 350 19.2.2 Fibrillar Structures 359 19.2.3 Cocontinuous Structures 361 19.3 Recent Advances in Polymer Blends 363 19.3.1 Immiscible Blends in Confined Flow 363 19.3.2 Blend Compatibilization by Nanoparticles 364 19.4 Conclusions 367 Acknowledgments 368 References 368 20 Processing Structure and Morphology in Polymer Nanocomposites 374 Duraccio Donatella Clara Silvestre Sossio Cimmino Antonella Marra and Marilena Pezzuto 20.1 Overview 374 20.2 Nanoparticles with One Dimension Less Than 100 nm (Layered Silicates) 375 20.3 Nanoparticles with Two Dimensions Less Than 100 nm (Carbon Nanotubes) 377 20.4 Nanoparticles with Three Dimensions Less Than 100 nm (Metal Metal Oxide) 380 20.5 Preparative Methods 382 20.5.1 Solution Processing 382 20.5.2 In situ Polymerization 383 20.5.3 Melt Processing 384 20.5.4 In situ Sol Gel Technology 384 20.6 Structure and Morphology of Polymer Nanocomposites 385 20.7 Concluding Remarks 388 References 388 21 Morphology and Gas Barrier Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites 397 Abbas Ghanbari Marie-Claude Heuzey Pierre J. Carreau and Minh-Tan Ton-That 21.1 Introduction 397 21.2 Structure of Layered Silicates 397 21.3 Morphologies of Polymer-Layered Silicate Composites 398 21.4 Nanocomposite Preparation Methods 398 21.5 Challenges of Thermal Degradation in Melt Intercalation 400 21.6 Methods for Improving Gas Barrier Properties of Polymers 403 21.7 Polyamide Nanocomposites 405 21.8 Polyolefin Nanocomposites 405 21.9 Pet Nanocomposites 406 21.10 Polylactide Nanocomposites 413 21.11 Conclusions and Perspectives 414 References 415 22 Features on the Development and Stability of Phase Morphology in Complex Multicomponent Polymeric Systems: Main Focus on Processing Aspects 418 Charef Harrats Maria-Beatrice Coltelli and Gabriel Groeninckx 22.1 Introduction 418 22.2 Phase Morphology Development in Polymer Blends 419 22.2.1 Droplet-in-Matrix (Dispersed) Phase Morphology 419 22.2.2 Co-continuous Phase Morphology 419 22.2.3 Phase Morphology in Ternary Blends 420 22.3 Melt Processing of Polymer Blends 423 22.3.1 Morphology Buildup during Processing 423 22.3.2 Effects of Processing Parameters on Phase Morphology 424 22.4 Chemistry Involved in Polymer Blends 426 22.4.1 Effect of the Compatibilizer on Phase Morphology 426 22.4.2 Formation in situ of the Compatibilizer 427 22.4.3 Case of Reactive Ternary Blends 429 22.4.4 Stability of Phase Morphology in Reactively Compatibilized Blends 431 22.4.5 Organoclay-Promoted Phase Morphology 433 22.4.6 Conclusions 435 References 436 INDEX 439

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Szczegóły: Polymer Morphology - Qipeng Guo

Tytuł: Polymer Morphology
Autor: Qipeng Guo
Wydawnictwo: John Wiley
ISBN: 9781118452158
Rok wydania: 2016
Ilość stron: 464
Oprawa: Twarda
Waga: 1.32 kg


Recenzje: Polymer Morphology - Qipeng Guo

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